Brit/pol/ #2922: BIG HOGS Edition

Nathaniel Powell
Nathaniel Powell

Boris Johnson overhauls cabinet on first day as PM
bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-49102466

UK heatwave: Extraordinary temperatures 'could break records'
bbc.co.uk/news/uk-49094575

Heathrow passengers forced to take summer holidays without their luggage
telegraph.co.uk/news/2019/07/24/heathrow-passengers-forced-take-summer-holidays-without-luggage/

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Other urls found in this thread:

desuarchive.org/christianity/thread/9125/
archive.fo/zeOdD
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2016_South_Korean_political_scandal
infowars.com/watch-alex-jones-show/
boards.4chan.org/pol/thread/220447859/absolutely-happenin-john-mcaffee-is-the-little-st
dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7272471/A-level-student-19-convicted-importing-deadly-Glock-17-pistol.html
youtube.com/watch?v=ed05KYjlJdM&t=520s
twitter.com/howroute/status/1153377677836980224
mobile.twitter.com/KayBurley/status/1154292149053218817
theguardian.com/us-news/2019/jul/22/if-others-have-rifles-well-have-rifles-why-leftist-groups-are-taking-up-arms
twitter.com/BBCNews/status/1154222483895128064
twitter.com/griptmedia/status/1151533809751527424
twitter.com/JamesCleverly/status/1154347293677461504
dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7280851/Rank-hypocrisy-globetrotting-Extinction-Rebellion-jet-setters-lifestyle-luxury-holidays.html
archive.fo/ZLn9M
twitter.com/mollyfprince/status/1154039284950716419
mirror.co.uk/lifestyle/health/women-warned-not-put-ice-18773113
streamable.com/srr79
theguardian.com/politics/live/2019/jul/25/boris-johnson-new-cabinet-prime-minister-chairs-first-cabinet-as-critics-say-party-now-fully-taken-over-by-hard-right-live-news
streamable.com/
streamable.com/dnq0r
austinpug.org/4-common-infectious-diseases-spread-by-raccoons/
dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7219539/Historian-claims-Catholic-church-covered-early-Christian-artwork-women-priests-bishops.html
twitter.com/Reuters/status/1154343032302366724
dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7174919/Money-launderer-67-convicted-10million-Jewish-charities-scam-going-run.html
twitter.com/LondonStreets3/status/1153413765771223040
twitter.com/LondonStreets3/status/1153414506980282368
twitter.com/search?q=Feast&src=tren
twitter.com/UKMoments/status/1154417054306512896
twitter.com/search?q=kay burley&src=tren
dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7285677/Sky-News-Kay-Burley-mocked-badly-placed-aubergine-emoji-tweet.html
dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2315531/Frank-Lampard-agent-riddle-250k-Ferrari-bought-using-stars-name.html
twitter.com/JReenoir/status/1154158787412078598
dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7285747/Identity-teen-rapist-17-brutally-attacked-murdered-schoolgirl-14-revealed.html
timesofisrael.com/liveblog_entry/boris-johnson-volunteered-in-a-galilee-kibbutz-in-the-1980s-kibbutz-leader-says/
twitter.com/CNN/status/1154316894528319488
thepostmillennial.com/exclusive-jessica-yaniv-accused-of-trying-to-share-child-porn-sexual-harassment-of-minors/
youtu.be/CFkA-1Ozw_8
twitter.com/meaglemp/status/1154377452636037120
twitter.com/snb19692/status/1153691111476670464
WWW.twitter.com/OFOCBrexit/status/1154298881422835712
twitter.com/KathRidout

Ryder Bell
Ryder Bell

xth for Autism

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Ayden Martinez
Ayden Martinez

mine got stuck in the sys
smh

good lad

Anthony Perry
Anthony Perry

good lad

Wyatt Foster
Wyatt Foster

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Asher Sullivan
Asher Sullivan

aesthetic tbh

Xavier Stewart
Xavier Stewart

Good lad, me too

Justin Gonzalez
Justin Gonzalez

what if its ginnie?

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Bentley Bell
Bentley Bell

cringecel madlad superglues his hands to the thread

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Jayden Gonzalez
Jayden Gonzalez

tfw

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David Price
David Price

seems correct. who the hell is running the country?

please say lizard people not kikes

Austin Rodriguez
Austin Rodriguez

nth for the end

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Blake Bailey
Blake Bailey

someone shop borris as a hooker, whorish johnson

Henry Lewis
Henry Lewis

keek
they're the same lad

Adam Butler
Adam Butler

epic and facebookpilled

Logan Evans
Logan Evans

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Landon Miller
Landon Miller

5 minutes on nofap niggas be like

Jace Cook
Jace Cook

wish last night's storm was still here

Lucas Miller
Lucas Miller

was comfy tbh

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David Butler
David Butler

Thanks lods

Alexander Walker
Alexander Walker

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Sebastian Young
Sebastian Young

busy returning life to the sahara

Connor Watson
Connor Watson

Is this the hyphenated-Scot who shoves things up his arse to stick it to the man?

Adrian Lewis
Adrian Lewis

anyhoo muh peeps, join epic bread
desuarchive.org/christianity/thread/9125/

Levi Scott
Levi Scott

1236998
You can join my filter

Jace Collins
Jace Collins

yeah he came close to being listed as a terrorist leader for having a gang of mixed race magapedes
my question was answered
nice lads

Christian Russell
Christian Russell

It's the spam from yesterday.

Gavin Rivera
Gavin Rivera

what does a dying civilisation look like?

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Anthony Collins
Anthony Collins

Don't mind me just passing through. You don't need The 2A to deal with hogs.

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Eli Watson
Eli Watson

Good lad

Sebastian Price
Sebastian Price

7 per 1000
WEW
E
W

Korea is just a zone for sociological experimentation.

Luis Mitchell
Luis Mitchell

Just 15 Things Boris Johnson's New Key Aide Dominic Cummings Has Said About Tory MPs
In one of his first major Downing Street appointments, Boris Johnson has handed a key adviser role to controversial Vote Leave campaign chief Dominic Cummings
archive.fo/zeOdD

He called MPs in the European Research Group of Tory Brexiteers “pirates”
He said ERG MPs were “useful idiots” and that backbench grandee Bill Cash talks “bullshit”
He said David Davis is “thick as mince” and “as lazy as a toad”
He accused Tory MP Bernard Jenkin of failing to read the backstop detail before backing it
He claimed some Tory Brexiteers spent the referendum “chasing girls”
He told some Eurosceptic Tory MPs they were a “tumour” and then warned them “actions have consequences”
He said MPs on the Leave campaign were lazy
He accused some Brexiteer MPs of “rudeness”.
He admitted that honesty on the Leave campaign was “rare”
He said some Tories live in a “fantasy world”
During a terrific spat with culture select committee chair Damian Collins — who has been angling for a job in Johnson’s government — Cummings told Collins to “get lost”
He also accused Collins of spreading “fake news” and misleading Parliament
He said some Brexiteer economists were “charlatans”
In a letter to Tory MPs and donors, Cummings warned they were refusing to “face reality” and would allow Jeremy Corbyn to become PM
And he said a “subset” of the ERG were an “asset to Remain”

Anthony Wilson
Anthony Wilson

watching it again lads

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Lincoln Fisher
Lincoln Fisher

reminder that ahrimanic death cults control most of the governments of the world lads

Asher Ward
Asher Ward

I get they are ants but they seem genuinely alien tbh

Justin Ward
Justin Ward

good lad

Cooper Moore
Cooper Moore

also I thought both of them were blokes tbh

Aren't they run by a group of actual cultists?

Blake Young
Blake Young

yeah as is the USA tbf, they are run by some witch cult, east asians didn't have monotheism to help reduce all the evil cult shite. unironically need torquemada to come back ASAP

Ethan Powell
Ethan Powell

Aren't they run by a group of actual cultists?

Yes

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2016_South_Korean_political_scandal

James Miller
James Miller

all that heremetic occult imagery on the mormon tabernacle

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Jayden Walker
Jayden Walker

I get that feeling with all foreigners tbh. Even are pan-European huwhite brethren have their own unique psychologies.

David Brown
David Brown

Blocked nose and im too fucking hot for dinner

Brody Diaz
Brody Diaz

Unironically want to punch my computer screen tbh

Nathaniel Jackson
Nathaniel Jackson

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Jacob Ortiz
Jacob Ortiz

Based

Joshua Evans
Joshua Evans

I miss him lads

Charles Russell
Charles Russell

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Bentley Taylor
Bentley Taylor

My Cuban cigars came so I am not too angry tbf

Carson Carter
Carson Carter

so tired I've started misinterpreting things and suffering lapses in logic
Epic. Epic for the win.

Matthew Perry
Matthew Perry

Bast
Me too tbh

Nathan Lee
Nathan Lee

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Logan Smith
Logan Smith

did you ever get that TCB ring lad?

Mason Campbell
Mason Campbell

Base and epic and for the win I might even say?

Dylan Ortiz
Dylan Ortiz

Didnt end up buying it, I think they are back in stock on amazon atm tbh

Elijah Anderson
Elijah Anderson

Shan't be me m'lady

Cooper Clark
Cooper Clark

Is that you lad?

Isaiah Wilson
Isaiah Wilson

End of

Christian Hill
Christian Hill

infowars.com/watch-alex-jones-show/

Owen Price
Owen Price

alegs shootin guns

Brandon Gonzalez
Brandon Gonzalez

weyew lads

>inb4 crossposting boards.4chan.org/pol/thread/220447859/absolutely-happenin-john-mcaffee-is-the-little-st

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Cameron Ramirez
Cameron Ramirez

Wow and I thought our birthrates were low.
NK is horribly repressive (although I only know this because the same people who lied about WMDs and jew skin lampshades told me so), but at least they won't become extinct within 2 generations.
The Koreans have an isolated ethnostate to act as a genetic reserve which will likely prove to be a great survival strategy.

Camden Bell
Camden Bell

Nah, I just remembered that lad existed. He even ended that post with an "end of" before it was a memi.

Aaron Sanders
Aaron Sanders

fianially off work

SA 4ch posting

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Benjamin Scott
Benjamin Scott

keeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeek macafee is a based redneck cowboy

Aaron Diaz
Aaron Diaz

He wasn't rusing, then?

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Landon Campbell
Landon Campbell

Which McDonalds does coo/k/ work in?

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Robert Davis
Robert Davis

smh

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Elijah Johnson
Elijah Johnson

sorry lad but our /pol/ is probably jacking Q off instead of posting this stuff

Joshua Perez
Joshua Perez

good fucking lad, now save up and get the tigerman jacket for the racewar lad

Kayden Lopez
Kayden Lopez

ladies and gentlemen, we got 'em

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Camden Garcia
Camden Garcia

Should I tbh?

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Landon Kelly
Landon Kelly

SA was Jeff Bezos this whole time

Jack Thomas
Jack Thomas

it's a pretty obscure item that ain't exactly going to be bought often and you also left the seller in the picture, any persistent spy could find you lad

Carter Gomez
Carter Gomez

He was posting that the glowniggers tried to apprehend him and his missus off their boat a couple days ago as well. There was a thread in 8pol.

Nicholas Rivera
Nicholas Rivera

spying on a codeine addict
Bit pointless tbh

Jacob Perry
Jacob Perry

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Kayden Collins
Kayden Collins

And then find out that I shitpost about elvis, codiene and farting? idc tbh

Brody Thomas
Brody Thomas

tbh

David Peterson
David Peterson

offer him codeine to become a government lackey
This is the turning point for codeinelad, lads.

Dylan Harris
Dylan Harris

yeah lad save up that tigerman jacket is sweet I might get one one day

Jordan Ward
Jordan Ward

no doggoman jacket

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Austin Foster
Austin Foster

implying they wouldn't make an example of him

yeah it's been funny to watch, if it really was him spying on epstein's isle then good on him

until they turn you into this dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7272471/A-level-student-19-convicted-importing-deadly-Glock-17-pistol.html

Hunter Rivera
Hunter Rivera

deadly pistol
As opposed to what?

Andrew Hill
Andrew Hill

Of all the bad Boris takes these last couple days, this is definitely one of the worst.

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Oliver Thomas
Oliver Thomas

Ultra brainlet take

William Sanders
William Sanders

1237045
file deleted

Luis Ortiz
Luis Ortiz

spy seething that I kept them from his trail

Henry Gomez
Henry Gomez

Their son insisted he had bought the gun and ammunition to kill himself and was not planning a mass shooting.
Kek
What should we call our post apocalyptic gang tbh?

Angel Adams
Angel Adams

Tbf there was nothing in the screenshot

Xavier Johnson
Xavier Johnson

Just pointing it out lad

Thomas Wood
Thomas Wood

Not comprehending any of this tbh lads. Not even the bit about 2017.

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Parker Russell
Parker Russell

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Grayson Green
Grayson Green

What should we call our post apocalyptic gang tbh?
Oh come on now lad.

Their son insisted he had bought the gun and ammunition to kill himself and was not planning a mass shooting.
He only bought five bullets so either he was going to kill a couple people that had hurt him or to kill himself. They span it into "mass shooting" to keep up with spooky gun craze stories.

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Levi Davis
Levi Davis

I don't think there's many orders for it and especially not that particular seller, as I said someone persistent enough could've pestered the seller or a spy could've done something.

Fair enough lad.

Carter Gonzalez
Carter Gonzalez

SA has my back

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Christopher Carter
Christopher Carter

>And my front

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Gavin Sullivan
Gavin Sullivan

Looking out for the lads.
you've not been the only one tbh, although yours had no personal info. had people message me before asking to delet posts as it had personal stuff in it

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Andrew Hernandez
Andrew Hernandez

Based good lad

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Isaiah Gutierrez
Isaiah Gutierrez

I asked you to do that before tbh keeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeek

Michael Wilson
Michael Wilson

SA has my back
WATCH OUT LAD HE'S UNZIPPING

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Henry Watson
Henry Watson

kek

fuck sake lad jej, were you the one that posted their address?

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Jonathan Moore
Jonathan Moore

lads mentioning McAfee
just watched a few videos about him
Not a coincidence.

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Christian Young
Christian Young

Nah the one who messaged you on dicord asking you to delet my steam name when osrs offered free games and I foolishly posted it smh

Hudson Walker
Hudson Walker

I don#t get it? People can't see who the buyer is right? What's the big deal here?

Adrian Jackson
Adrian Jackson

(1)

Robert Harris
Robert Harris

google changed "riot" to "unrest"

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Grayson Wright
Grayson Wright

Fuck off incel

Eli Butler
Eli Butler

collective consciousness controlling all of us

keeek, that's not too bad at least, one lad posted a pic of an election pamphlet he got through the door but one of the other letters in the pic had his address

I have to do the spies (Nick Lowles, Hope not Hate, Gerry Gable, Searchlight Magazine) job for them
lmao shouldn't've sacked me

Kevin Diaz
Kevin Diaz

what was the first Schizo sighting? i’m trying to figure out if i’m the Schizo or not. i think maybe Schizo just maybe means “yank sympathies” or something. or “yank mindset”?


btw, do you know why people who aren’t brit come here? 2 reasons, fisrt, people have the mistaken belief that brits are nice like Americans. Americans ruined your reputation. The truth is, brits are parisian. second, the idea of using a chan for chat is relatively unknown, elsewhere. each thread is supposed to be kept strictly on topic. so there’s a lack of chan-style conversation, though lots of sites theoretically could support it (i’ve seen people us disqus this way, but most people have no idea it’s possible, somehow).

Hunter Sanders
Hunter Sanders

as I said someone persistent enough could've pestered the seller or a spy could've done something.
What a load of wank kek. You're the only person who even had the thought about doxxing and trying to look up some lads real ID. Nobody else even had that cross their mind.

Jason Moore
Jason Moore

(3)

Ian Wright
Ian Wright

doxing is always in the back of the minds of any chan veteran. it’s always there.

Julian Nelson
Julian Nelson

Trannycord
Lads actually have this shite
smh tbqh
Ferguson Riot
Ferguson Unrest
Ferguson Disapproval

Dylan Green
Dylan Green

Fresh IP too, spies (Nick Lowles, Hope not Hate, Gerry Gable, Searchlight Magazine) are everywhere tbh smh.

okay lad sure

Josiah Turner
Josiah Turner

are yorkshire people as cool as the dogs?

Chase Gomez
Chase Gomez

Saw the drone footage that McAfee took, why doesn't anyone just go on the island and see what's going on, it looks desolate tbh anti-bully spoiler
I've got a Yorkshire terrier. She's a good lass, loves licking people and getting belly rubs.

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Connor Jones
Connor Jones

twitch thot abuses her cat
people report her
she whinges that it's targeted harassment
twitch bans the people who reported her

how do we rid ourselves of the eternal thot

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Nathaniel Martinez
Nathaniel Martinez

it looks desolate tbh
Lad they have people demolishing bits of the island, they removed the dome from his crematorium temple.
It's a full-on cleanup crew.

Levi Foster
Levi Foster

With a hatchet in fortnite

Jason Hughes
Jason Hughes

Knife is also fine if you want to keep up with recent trends

Bentley Edwards
Bentley Edwards

Rid ourselves of the beta cuck tbh
Removed the dome
yeah I saw that thought it was just me remembering it wrong tbh. The lads who storm the island would be eternally immortalised as being based tbh

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Mason Scott
Mason Scott

We should turn paedo snuff island into roastie snuff island tbh
2 birds with one stone

Logan Thompson
Logan Thompson

someone persistent enough could've pestered the seller or a spy could've done something.

could've pestered the seller

or a spy could've done something

This doesn't sound retarded or weird to anyone else?

Ryder Miller
Ryder Miller

it’s called “the disposable male”

Brayden Thomas
Brayden Thomas

That's what theyyou fucking do.

Gabriel Perry
Gabriel Perry

i don’t even know what the hell, is going on at all.

Kevin Bell
Kevin Bell

*-,

Isaiah Cooper
Isaiah Cooper

Hey! Internet seller! Tell me the full name and home address of the lad you just sold an Elvis Collection 18K Gold Plated Black TCB Swarovski Crystal Stage Ring by Lowell Hayes to, right now, for some reason

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Ryder James
Ryder James

(*-*)

Colton Nelson
Colton Nelson

McAfee has the funds, the guns, and the will, I could see him starting something.

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David Foster
David Foster

No-one's buying it, spy.

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Xavier Martinez
Xavier Martinez

it’s by christopher lowell, and it’s a signed commemorative sofa.

Zachary Hall
Zachary Hall

Animal abusers should be killed.

Jose Young
Jose Young

nigger behaviour tbh

Jackson Martin
Jackson Martin

What's all this talk about spuies and a deleted image late to thread tbh not a spy spoiler
Thanks for the 50ccs of hopium lad

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Carter Allen
Carter Allen

from da Norf
un-ironically heard almost every variation of -azza throughout my life

Jackson White
Jackson White

Yeah lad.

Luis Thompson
Luis Thompson

Put elite nonces into maximum security prisons where they get tortured on the daily (forced to stay awake, can't move, waterboarding, solitary confinement, sensory deprivation, etc) and barely fed so that they stay alive - but just barely.

Hudson Fisher
Hudson Fisher

Gazzas and bazzas are our best and brightest tbh

Aaron Harris
Aaron Harris

being this bad at fitting in
Must remind you of high school

Carter Diaz
Carter Diaz

lad posted pic with enough info that a spy could've used to find him
tbh with the way McAfee has been acting online lately I'd be more surprised if he didn't do something.

Pretty sure I've got at least half a dozen relatives with variants of the names.

Ian Taylor
Ian Taylor

This but also anyone who uses Bongo Bongo Land

Jayden Young
Jayden Young

God damnit! And I almost got the skinny on codeine lad and how much he likes to fart on a nigga. Foiled again.

Jack Phillips
Jack Phillips

That's against their 'ooman rights mate

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Benjamin Foster
Benjamin Foster

Naah, no need to do that much. Just set them up in a prison with poor conditions, and have a telly showing their work being undone

Aiden Powell
Aiden Powell

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Connor Nelson
Connor Nelson

smh this is silly

Kevin Johnson
Kevin Johnson

too rite

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Dominic Jackson
Dominic Jackson

Nothing really. It's just all daft. Everything is daft.

Luis Morris
Luis Morris

look out for the lads
"hurr durr lad ur just bein dum"
They already go after nobodies as it is, thinking they wouldn't go after lads on here if they could is just silly.

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Josiah Nelson
Josiah Nelson

high school

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Aaron Anderson
Aaron Anderson

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Isaiah Phillips
Isaiah Phillips

poor lad, spies (Nick Lowles, Hope not Hate, Gerry Gable, Searchlight Magazine) btfod tbh kek
ywn be part of McAfee crew
ywn pull up on Epstein's island with your based frens and capture all the nonces, free the children, and document everything
why live

Thomas Harris
Thomas Harris

i wonder how many people are “schiz”.

Jason Gonzalez
Jason Gonzalez

y liv
4 tha livestream

William Turner
William Turner

The dome was knocked off by the storms

Grayson Perry
Grayson Perry

with enough info that a spy could've used to find him
Such as?

Cameron Wilson
Cameron Wilson

This

Thomas Murphy
Thomas Murphy

actual schizo will never come back
statham is never coming back
Monarch will never come back
Cyclops will never use his flag again
no pre mutelass puglad

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Xavier Peterson
Xavier Peterson

ikr i thought i was schiz, but apparently not. this is unbelievably disappointing.

Dominic Robinson
Dominic Robinson

the fool didn’t restore the temple. served him right!

Landon Ross
Landon Ross

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Henry Rodriguez
Henry Rodriguez

oy oy baz you sayin those vile nonces are 'oomen

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Ayden Fisher
Ayden Fisher

those virgin wagies in the back

Matthew Ortiz
Matthew Ortiz

have wrong think
get diagnosed with schizophrenia
It's a memi tbh

Evan Martin
Evan Martin

You're a mong.

Jeremiah Williams
Jeremiah Williams

okay lad

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Easton Brown
Easton Brown

mince pies trying this hard

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Nicholas Ross
Nicholas Ross

it's all so silly

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Daniel Howard
Daniel Howard

might smoke a cuban cigar tbh

Hunter Richardson
Hunter Richardson

kek
His posting style seems familiar

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Kayden Martinez
Kayden Martinez

I don't get why he's making such a big deal out of it unless he's a spy or a lazy ruser; at worst I'm being a tad too paranoid but overall it's harmless, and at best I'm looking out for lads and trying to keep the spies (Nick Lowles, Hope not Hate, Gerry Gable, Searchlight Magazine) at bay. Either way it's hardly anything to drag to drag out for this long.

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Gabriel Sanchez
Gabriel Sanchez

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Asher Hughes
Asher Hughes

A little bit of paranoia over spies (Nick Lowles, Hope not Hate, Gerry Gable, Searchlight Magazine) is nothing bad tbh.
tfw don't have 30 basset hounds

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Easton Rodriguez
Easton Rodriguez

Exactly, especially with the way they crack down on wrongthink.
tfw don't have 30 children

Jack Ross
Jack Ross

in the us it’s no big deal as long as you’re not involved in a certain slate of crimes that are obviously dumb. it’s interesting to see the pressure, but lack of intelligence, about that shift of total censorship in the uk. “flightless birds” don’t seem to be making wise decisions.

Landon Bennett
Landon Bennett

you always got to be on edge nowadays smh. Reminder that you cannot trust your vpn to not keep logs
tfw don't have 30 basset hounds and 30 children
don't know what you are trying to say tbh lad

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Oliver Jones
Oliver Jones

It's visible on Google maps down by the shore

Ethan Stewart
Ethan Stewart

the indo-european kings lad

Adrian Howard
Adrian Howard

I would love to fight this girl 1 on 1 any weapon or fighting style and it would be to the death in the middle of the michigan woods in late autumn in the middle of the night

Asher Anderson
Asher Anderson

h

Jason Martinez
Jason Martinez

-OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO

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Chase Bennett
Chase Bennett

ywn be a comfy localist moo farmer

Isaiah Scott
Isaiah Scott

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Aiden Green
Aiden Green

tfw AC/DC black ice album at 4 am

WOO! How you lads doing? I’m going to walk the dog when day breaks then lift before it gets too hot. We’re fucked today the heats set to be 38/39degrees

James Bailey
James Bailey

built something mummy asked for which required basic tools and carpentry and she was impressed tbh

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Angel Parker
Angel Parker

it’s like thos, in the uk, if you just say that some tranny was born a man, you can get locked up. in the us, it’s your legal right to be a nazi or commie. They get really bent out of shape if you commit or plan terror attacks, or aid the development of such a criminal plot. there is no liberty whatsoever in the uk.

Alexander Phillips
Alexander Phillips

s/thos/this

Chase White
Chase White

she thinks you're stupid tbh, that’s how thots are.

Justin Jackson
Justin Jackson

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David Ortiz
David Ortiz

oh boy, the dog bot is back.

Charles Hall
Charles Hall

That’s actually neat man what did you build?

Henry Martin
Henry Martin

I swear at 1:28 he says
cuz I’m a nigger

Ryder Anderson
Ryder Anderson

a hanging shelf outside that she wants to put plants and candles on

how are your lifts coming along lad?

Henry Cooper
Henry Cooper

Huh. That’s pretty good if you ask me, I’ve never done anything like that, good job on that buddy. Most I’ve ever done was swapping scart cables, apparently my mum just doesn’t understand how different tv inputs work. What tools did you need to use? How long did it take?

Lifts are getting back on track cheers lad, I had 10 days off work two weeks ago and all that spare time messed me up, ended up doing nothing but boredom eat but I’m back to my normal self. Lesson learned, keep my spare time limited or I fall apart basically.

Evan Long
Evan Long

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Joseph Adams
Joseph Adams

lads…

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Jaxson Fisher
Jaxson Fisher

yup, saw it. the cop obviously did it, the one thy are “questioning” - he knows where the cameras are, cops do that all the time.

Samuel Nguyen
Samuel Nguyen

I'm paranoid that you're parodying me, lad. I usually shitpost about the gym.
haven't been in a month
mental health has been affected moreso than my physical health
H-ha ha

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Cameron Ward
Cameron Ward

lids, this is what a phony convo looks like, the kind alias builders deploy:

Jordan Miller
Jordan Miller

the beutally stupid npc quality of it reveals it in more intellectual parts, but they persist to gaslight undaunted.

John Roberts
John Roberts

*brutally

Jace James
Jace James

Kek, don’t worry. It’s good to know it’s not just me that gets like that. My problem is if I have too much time on my hands I end up pissing it away and doing nothing and start hating myself for it.

I’m back at work now and my spare time is back to 3 days a week so I’m able to get back to my usual self easy. I just fall apart if I have too much free time, lesson learned never booking more than a week off tops

Juan Richardson
Juan Richardson

What happened? Was he attacked by another inmate?

Connor Perry
Connor Perry

yeah. it’s completely obvious. pedos don’t last long outside of isolation.

Adrian Davis
Adrian Davis

tfw you realise without Zig Forums your only social interaction would be with mummy and psychologist
thank you lids

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James White
James White

Yeah looks like an assault, prisoners said they heard screams. I thought they'd have him in protective custody considering his crimes and status.

Aiden Ramirez
Aiden Ramirez

Aye, we share the same detriments. Holidays, days off and time otherwise spent unproductively always takes me down a slippery slope.

Chin up lid, we're all gonna make it.

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Josiah Thompson
Josiah Thompson

ywn give codeinelad a smack in the face

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Brayden Edwards
Brayden Edwards

raping and killing prostitutes is socialization as well, lad.

Oliver James
Oliver James

trw you yealise it’s actually #2 (base ten) downing street

Bentley Jones
Bentley Jones

tfw slowly acquiring rl friends, actual genuine friends too not the useless wankers that just use you when it’s convenient

I’ve got 3 actual irl friends now woo

Samuel Jenkins
Samuel Jenkins

It’s awful because I end up losing hard gained progress and have to fight my way back to what I was at.
I’m getting better at it though, this failure wasn’t as bad as last time so I’m slowly getting past it, failure by failure I learn something more.

Bentley Brown
Bentley Brown

it’s already warm enough that my 16 inch steel fan is blowing hot air

Damn

Carson Parker
Carson Parker

you got the windows open lad?

Jonathan Thompson
Jonathan Thompson

it’s literally 200c lid. ull die. omg

Nathan Martin
Nathan Martin

displaced the small master craftsmen by setting up huge workshops, which saved many expenses
and permitted an elaborate division of labor.
This is how it has come about that in civilized countries at the present time nearly all kinds of
labor are performed in factories – and, in nearly all branches of work, handicrafts and
manufacture have been superseded. This process has, to an ever greater degree, ruined the old
middle class, especially the small handicraftsmen; it has entirely transformed the condition of the
workers; and two new classes have been created which are gradually swallowing up all the others.
These are:
(i) The class of big capitalists, who, in all civilized countries, are already in almost
exclusive possession of all the means of subsistence and of the instruments
(machines, factories) and materials necessary for the production of the means of
subsistence. This is the bourgeois class, or the bourgeoisie.
(ii) The class of the wholly propertyless, who are obliged to sell their labor to the
bourgeoisie in order to get, in exchange, the means of subsistence for their
support. This is called the class of proletarians, or the proletariat.
– 5 –
Under what conditions does this sale of the
labor of the proletarians to the bourgeoisie take place?
Labor is a commodity, like any other, and its price is therefore determined by exactly the same
laws that apply to other commodities. In a regime of big industry or of free competition – as we
shall see, the two come to the same thing – the price of a commodity is, on the average, always
equal to its cost of production. Hence, the price of labor is also equal to the cost of production of
labor.
But, the costs of production of labor consist of precisely the quantity of means of subsistence
necessary to enable the worker to continue working, and to prevent the working class from dying
out. The worker will therefore get no more for his labor than is necessary for this purpose; the
price of labor, or the wage, will, in other words, be the lowest, the minimum, required for the
maintenance of life.
However, since business is sometimes better and sometimes worse, it follows that the worker
sometimes gets more and sometimes gets less for his commodities. But, again, just as the
industrialist, on the average of good times and bad, gets no more and no less for his commodities
than what they cost, similarly on the average the worker gets no more and no less than his
minimum.
This economic law of wages operates the more strictly the greater the degree to which big
industry has taken possession of all branches of production.
– 6 –
What working classes were there before the industrial
revolution?
The working classes have always, according to the different stages of development of society,
lived in different circumstances and had different relations to the owning and ruling classes.
In antiquity, the workers were the slaves of the owners, just as they still are in many backward
countries and even in the southern part of the United States.
In the Middle Ages, they were the serfs of the land-owning nobility, as they still are in Hungary,
Poland, and Russia. In the Middle Ages, and indeed right up to the industrial revolution, there
were also journeymen in the cities who worked in the service of petty bourgeois maste

David Martin
David Martin

introduced. Once the capitalists saw how advantageous this was for them, they
sought to extend it to more and more branches of labour. They divided work more
and more between the workers so that workers who formerly had made a whole
article now produced only a part of it. Labour simplified in this way produced
goods more quickly and therefore more cheaply and only now was it found in
almost every branch of labour that here also machines could be used. As soon as
any branch of labour went over to factory production it ended up, just as in the
case of spinning and weaving. in the hands of the big capitalists, and the workers
were deprived of the last remnants of their independence. We have gradually
arrived at the position where almost all branches of labour are run on a factory
basis. This has increasingly brought about the ruin of the previously existing
middle class, especially of the small master craftsmen, completely transformed the
previous position of the workers, and two new classes which are gradually
swallowing up all other classes have come into being, namely:
I. The, class of the big capitalists, who in all advanced countries are in almost
exclusive possession of the means of subsistence and those means (machines,
factories, workshops, etc.) by which these means of subsistence are produced.
This is the bourgeois class, or the bourgeoisie.
II. The class of the completely propertyless, who are compelled to sell their labour
to the first class, the bourgeois, simply to obtain from them in return their means
of subsistence. Since the parties to this trading in labour are not equal, but the
bourgeois have the advantage, the propertyless must submit to the bad conditions
laid down by the bourgeois. This class, dependent on the bourgeois, is called the
class of the proletarians or the proletariat.
Question 10: In what way does the proletarian differ from the slave?
Answer: The slave is sold once and for all, the proletarian has to sell himself by
the day and by the hour. The slave is the property of one master and for that very
reason has a guaranteed subsistence, however wretched it may be. The proletarian
is, so to speak, the slave of the entire bourgeois class, not of one master, and
therefore has no guaranteed subsistence, since nobody buys his labour if he does
not need it. The slave is accounted a thing and not a member of civil society. The
proletarian is recognised as a person, as a member of civil society. The slave may,
therefore, have a better subsistence than the proletarian but the latter stands at a
higher stage of development. The slave frees himself by becoming a proletarian,
abolishing from the totality of property relationships only the relationship of
slavery. The proletarian can free himself only by abolishing property in general.
Question 11: In what way does the proletarian differ from the serf?
Answer: The serf has the use of a piece of land, that is, of an instrument of
production, in return for handing over a greater or lesser portion of the yield. The
proletarian works with instruments of production which belong to someone else
who, in return for his labour, hands over to him a portion, determined by
competition, of the products. In the case of the serf, the share of the labourer is
determined by his own labour, that is, by himself. In the case of the proletarian it
is determined by competition, therefore in the first place by the bourgeois. The
serf has guaranteed subsistence, the proletarian has not. The serf frees himself by
driving out his feudal lord and becoming a property owner himself, thus entering
into competition and joining for the time being the possessing class, the privileged
class. The proletarian frees himself by doing away with property, competition, and
all class differences.

Benjamin Cooper
Benjamin Cooper

Question 12: In what way does the proletarian differ from the handicraftsman?
Answer: As opposed to the proletarian, the so-called handicraftsman, who still
existed nearly everywhere during the last century and still exists here and there, is
at most a temporary proletarian. His aim is to acquire capital himself and so to
exploit other workers. He can often achieve this aim where the craft guilds still
exist or where freedom to follow a trade has not yet led to the organisation of
handwork on a factory basis and to intense competition. But as soon as the factory
system is introduced into handwork and competition is in full swing, this prospect
is eliminated and the handicraftsman becomes more and more a proletarian. The
handicraftsman therefore frees himself either by becoming a bourgeois or in
general passing over into the middle class, or, by becoming a proletarian as a
result of competition (as now happens in most cases) and joining the movement of
the proletariat – i. e., the more or less conscious communist movement.
Question 13: Then you do not believe that community of property has been possible at any time?
Answer: No. Communism has only arisen since machinery and other inventions
made it possible to hold out the prospect of an all-sided development, a happy
existence, for all members of society. Communism is the theory of a liberation
which was not possible for the slaves, the serfs, or the handicraftsmen, but only
for the proletarians and hence it belongs of necessity to the 19th century and was
not possible in any earlier period.
Question 14: Let m go back to the sixth question. As you wish to prepare for community of
property by the enlightening and uniting of the proletariat, then you reject revolution?
Answer: We are convinced not only of the uselessness but even of the
harmfulness of all conspiracies. We are also aware that revolutions are not made
deliberately and arbitrarily but that everywhere and at all times they are the
necessary consequence of circumstances which are not in any way whatever
dependent either on the will or on the leadership of individual parties or of whole
classes. But we also see that the development of the proletariat in almost all
countries of the world is forcibly repressed by the possessing classes and that thus
a revolution is being forcibly worked for by the opponents of communism. If, in
the end, the oppressed proletariat is thus driven into a revolution, then we will
defend the cause of the proletariat just as well by our deeds as now by our words.
Question 15: Do you intend to replace the existing social order by community of Property at one
stroke?
Answer: We have no such intention. The development of the masses cannot he
ordered by decree. It is determined by the development of the conditions in which
these masses live, and therefore proceeds gradually.
Question 16: How do you think the transition from the present situation to community of
Property is to be effected?
Answer: The first, fundamental condition for the introduction of community of
property is the political liberation of the proletariat through a democratic
constitution.
Question 17: What will be your first measure once you have established democracy?
Answer: Guaranteeing the subsistence of the proletariat.
Question 18: How will you do thi

Chase Reed
Chase Reed

Answer. I. By limiting private property in such a way that it gradually prepares
the way for its transformation into social property, e. g., by progressive taxation,
limitation of the right of inheritance in favour of the state, etc., etc.
II. By employing workers in national workshops and factories and on national
estates.
III. By educating all children at the expense of the state.
Question 19: How will you arrange this kind of education during the period of transition?
Answer: All children will be educated in state establishments from the time when
they can do without the first maternal care.
Question 20: Will not the introduction of community of property be accompanied by the
proclamation of the community of women?
Answer: By no means. We will only interfere in the personal relationship between
men and women or with the family in general to the extent that the maintenance of
the existing institution would disturb the new social order. Besides, we are well
aware that the family relationship has been modified in the course of history by
the property relationships and by periods of development, and that consequently
the ending of private property will also have a most important influence on it.
Question 21: Will nationalities continue to exist under communism?
Answer: The nationalities of the peoples who join together according to the
principle of community will be just as much compelled by this union to merge
with one another and thereby supersede themselves as the various differences
between estates and classes disappear through the superseding of their basis –
private property.
Question 22. Do Communists reject existing religions?
Answer: All religions which have existed hitherto were expressions of historical
stages of development of individual peoples or groups of peoples. But
communism is that stage of historical development which makes all existing
religions superfluous and supersedes them.
In the name and on the mandate of the Congress.
Secretary: Heide [Alias of Wilhelm Wolff in the League of the Just]
President: Karl Schill [Alias of Karl Schapper in the League of the Just]
London, June 9, 1847

Camden Parker
Camden Parker

In 1847 Engels wrote two draft programmes for the Communist League in the form of a catechism,
one in June and the other in October. The latter, which is known as Principles of Communism, was
first published in 1914. The earlier document “Draft of the Communist Confession of Faith”, was only
found in 1968. It was first published in 1969 in Hamburg, together with four other documents
pertaining to the first congress of the Communist League, in a booklet entitled Gründungs Dokumente
des Bundes der Kommunisten (Juni bis September 1847) [Founding Documents of the Communist
League].
At the June 1847 Congress of the League of the Just, which was also the founding conference of the
Communist League, it was decided to issue a draft “confession of faith” to be submitted for discussion
to the sections of the League. The document which has now come to light is almost certainly this
draft. Comparison of the two documents shows that Principles of Communism is a revised edition of
this earlier draft. In Principles of Communism, Engels left three questions unanswered, in two cases
with the notation “unchanged” (bleibt); this clearly refers to the answers provided in the earlier draft.
The new draft for the programme was worked out by Engels on the instructions of the leading body of
the Paris circle of the Communist League. The instructions were decided on after Engels’ sharp
criticism at the committee meeting, on October 22, 1847, of the draft programme drawn up by the
“true socialist“ Moses Hess, which was then rejected.
Still considering Principles of Communism as a preliminary draft, Engels expressed the view, in a
letter to Marx dated November 23-24 1847, that it would be best to drop the old catechistic form and
draw up a programme in the form of a manifesto.
At the second congress of the Communist League (November 29-December 8, 1847) Marx and Engels
defended the fundamental scientific principles of communism and were trusted with drafting a
programme in the form of a manifesto of the Communist Party. In writing the manifesto the founders
of Marxism made use of the propositions enunciated in Principles of Communism.
Engels uses the term Manufaktur, and its derivatives, which have been translated “manufacture”,
“manufacturing”, etc., Engels used this word literally, to indicate production by hand, not factory
production for which Engels uses “big industry”. Manufaktur differs from handicraft (guild production
in mediaeval towns), in that the latter was carried out by independent artisans. Manufacktur is carried
out by homeworkers working for merchant capitalists, or by groups of craftspeople working together
in large workshops owned by capitalists. It is therefore a transitional mode of production, between
guild (handicraft) and modern (capitalist) forms of production.

Joshua Clark
Joshua Clark

Communism is the doctrine of the conditions of the liberation of the proletariat.
– 2 –
What is the proletariat?
The proletariat is that class in society which lives entirely from the sale of its labor and does not
draw profit from any kind of capital; whose weal and woe, whose life and death, whose sole
existence depends on the demand for labor – hence, on the changing state of business, on the
vagaries of unbridled competition. The proletariat, or the class of proletarians, is, in a word, the
working class of the 19th century.6

– 3 –
Proletarians, then, have not always existed?
No. There have always been poor and working classes; and the working class have mostly been
poor. But there have not always been workers and poor people living under conditions as they are
today; in other words, there have not always been proletarians, any more than there has always
been free unbridled competitions.
– 4 –
How did the proletariat originate?
The Proletariat originated in the industrial revolution, which took place in England in the last half
of the last (18th) century, and which has since then been repeated in all the civilized countries of
the world.
This industrial revolution was precipitated by the discovery of the steam engine, various spinning
machines, the mechanical loom, and a whole series of other mechanical devices. These machines,
which were very expensive and hence could be bought only by big capitalists, altered the whole
mode of production and displaced the former workers, because the machines turned out cheaper
and better commodities than the workers could produce with their inefficient spinning wheels and
handlooms. The machines delivered industry wholly into the hands of the big capitalists and
rendered entirely worthless the meagre property of the workers (tools, looms, etc.). The result was
that the capitalists soon had everything in their hands and nothing remained to the workers. This
marked the introduction of the factory system into the textile industry.
Once the impulse to the introduction of machinery and the factory system had been given, this
system spread quickly to all other branches of industry, especially cloth- and book-printing,
pottery, and the metal industries.
Labor was more and more divided among the individual workers so that the worker who
previously had done a complete piece of work now did only a part of that piece. This division of
labor made it possible to produce things faster and cheaper. It reduced the activity of the
individual worker to simple, endlessly repeated mechanical motions which could be performed
not only as well but much better by a machine. In this way, all these industries fell, one after
another, under the dominance of steam, machinery, and the factory system, just as spinning and
weaving had already done.
But at the same time, they also fell into the hands of big capitalists, and their workers were
deprived of whatever independence remained to them. Gradually, not only genuine manufacture
but also handicrafts came within the province of the factory system as big capitalists increasingly

Caleb Scott
Caleb Scott

displaced the small master craftsmen by setting up huge workshops, which saved many expenses
and permitted an elaborate division of labor.
This is how it has come about that in civilized countries at the present time nearly all kinds of
labor are performed in factories – and, in nearly all branches of work, handicrafts and
manufacture have been superseded. This process has, to an ever greater degree, ruined the old
middle class, especially the small handicraftsmen; it has entirely transformed the condition of the
workers; and two new classes have been created which are gradually swallowing up all the others.
These are:
(i) The class of big capitalists, who, in all civilized countries, are already in almost
exclusive possession of all the means of subsistence and of the instruments
(machines, factories) and materials necessary for the production of the means of
subsistence. This is the bourgeois class, or the bourgeoisie.
(ii) The class of the wholly propertyless, who are obliged to sell their labor to the
bourgeoisie in order to get, in exchange, the means of subsistence for their
support. This is called the class of proletarians, or the proletariat.
– 5 –
Under what conditions does this sale of the
labor of the proletarians to the bourgeoisie take place?
Labor is a commodity, like any other, and its price is therefore determined by exactly the same
laws that apply to other commodities. In a regime of big industry or of free competition – as we
shall see, the two come to the same thing – the price of a commodity is, on the average, always
equal to its cost of production. Hence, the price of labor is also equal to the cost of production of
labor.
But, the costs of production of labor consist of precisely the quantity of means of subsistence
necessary to enable the worker to continue working, and to prevent the working class from dying
out. The worker will therefore get no more for his labor than is necessary for this purpose; the
price of labor, or the wage, will, in other words, be the lowest, the minimum, required for the
maintenance of life.
However, since business is sometimes better and sometimes worse, it follows that the worker
sometimes gets more and sometimes gets less for his commodities. But, again, just as the
industrialist, on the average of good times and bad, gets no more and no less for his commodities
than what they cost, similarly on the average the worker gets no more and no less than his
minimum.
This economic law of wages operates the more strictly the greater the degree to which big
industry has taken possession of all branches of production.
– 6 –
What working classes were there before the industrial
revolution?
The working classes have always, according to the different stages of development of society,
lived in different circumstances and had different relations to the owning and ruling classes.
In antiquity, the workers were the slaves of the owners, just as they still are in many backward
countries and even in the southern part of the United States.
In the Middle Ages, they were the serfs of the land-owning nobility, as they still are in Hungary,
Poland, and Russia. In the Middle Ages, and indeed right up to the industrial revolution, there
were also journeymen in the cities who worked in the service of petty bourgeois masters.

Jack Harris
Jack Harris

Gradually, as manufacture developed, these journeymen became manufacturing workers who
were even then employed by larger capitalists.
– 7 –
In what way do proletarians differ from slaves?
The slave is sold once and for all; the proletarian must sell himself daily and hourly.
The individual slave, property of one master, is assured an existence, however miserable it may
be, because of the master’s interest. The individual proletarian, property as it were of the entire
bourgeois class which buys his labor only when someone has need of it, has no secure existence.
This existence is assured only to the class as a whole.
The slave is outside competition; the proletarian is in it and experiences all its vagaries.
The slave counts as a thing, not as a member of society. Thus, the slave can have a better
existence than the proletarian, while the proletarian belongs to a higher stage of social
development and, himself, stands on a higher social level than the slave.
The slave frees himself when, of all the relations of private property, he abolishes only the
relation of slavery and thereby becomes a proletarian; the proletarian can free himself only by
abolishing private property in general.
– 8 –
In what way do proletarians differ from serfs?
The serf possesses and uses an instrument of production, a piece of land, in exchange for which
he gives up a part of his product or part of the services of his labor.
The proletarian works with the instruments of production of another, for the account of this other,
in exchange for a part of the product.
The serf gives up, the proletarian receives. The serf has an assured existence, the proletarian has
not. The serf is outside competition, the proletarian is in it.
The serf liberates himself in one of three ways: either he runs away to the city and there becomes
a handicraftsman; or, instead of products and services, he gives money to his lord and thereby
becomes a free tenant; or he overthrows his feudal lord and himself becomes a property owner. In
short, by one route or another, he gets into the owning class and enters into competition. The
proletarian liberates himself by abolishing competition, private property, and all class differences.
– 9 –
In what way do proletarians differ from handicraftsmen?
In contrast to the proletarian, the so-called handicraftsman, as he still existed almost everywhere
in the past (eighteenth) century and still exists here and there at present, is a proletarian at most
temporarily. His goal is to acquire capital himself wherewith to exploit other workers. He can
often achieve this goal where guilds still exist or where freedom from guild restrictions has not
yet led to the introduction of factory-style methods into the crafts nor yet to fierce competition
But as soon as the factory system has been introduced into the crafts and competition flourishes
fully, this perspective dwindles away and the handicraftsman becomes more and more a
proletarian. The handicraftsman therefore frees himself by becoming either bourgeois or entering
the middle class in general, or becoming a proletarian because of competition (as is now more
often the case). In which case he can free himself by joining the proletarian movement, i.e., the
more or less communist movement

Lucas Nguyen
Lucas Nguyen

MOSSAD GOT EPSTEIN

Owen Sanchez
Owen Sanchez

The manufacturing worker of the 16th to the 18th centuries still had, with but few exception, an
instrument of production in his own possession – his loom, the family spinning wheel, a little plot
of land which he cultivated in his spare time. The proletarian has none of these things.
The manufacturing worker almost always lives in the countryside and in a more or less
patriarchal relation to his landlord or employer; the proletarian lives, for the most part, in the city
and his relation to his employer is purely a cash relation.
The manufacturing worker is torn out of his patriarchal relation by big industry, loses whatever
property he still has, and in this way becomes a proletarian.
– 11 –
What were the immediate consequences of the industrial
revolution and of the division of society into bourgeoisie
and proletariat?
First, the lower and lower prices of industrial products brought about by machine labor totally
destroyed, in all countries of the world, the old system of manufacture or industry based upon
hand labor.
In this way, all semi-barbarian countries, which had hitherto been more or less strangers to
historical development, and whose industry had been based on manufacture, were violently
forced out of their isolation. They bought the cheaper commodities of the English and allowed
their own manufacturing workers to be ruined. Countries which had known no progress for
thousands of years – for example, India – were thoroughly revolutionized, and even China is now
on the way to a revolution.
We have come to the point where a new machine invented in England deprives millions of
Chinese workers of their livelihood within a year’s time.
In this way, big industry has brought all the people of the Earth into contact with each other, has
merged all local markets into one world market, has spread civilization and progress everywhere
and has thus ensured that whatever happens in civilized countries will have repercussions in all
other countries.
It follows that if the workers in England or France now liberate themselves, this must set off
revolution in all other countries – revolutions which, sooner or later, must accomplish the
liberation of their respective working class.
Second, wherever big industries displaced manufacture, the bourgeoisie developed in wealth and
power to the utmost and made itself the first class of the country. The result was that wherever
this happened, the bourgeoisie took political power into its own hands and displaced the hitherto
ruling classes, the aristocracy, the guildmasters, and their representative, the absolute monarchy.
The bourgeoisie annihilated the power of the aristocracy, the nobility, by abolishing the
entailment of estates – in other words, by making landed property subject to purchase and sale,
and by doing away with the special privileges of the nobility. It destroyed the power of the
guildmasters by abolishing guilds and handicraft privileges. In their place, it put competition –
that is, a state of society in which everyone has the right to enter into any branch of industry, the
only obstacle being a lack of the necessary capital.
The introduction of free competition is thus public declaration that from now on the members of
society are unequal only to the extent that their capitals are unequal, that capital is the decisive
power, and that therefore the capitalists, the bourgeoisie, have become the first class in society

Austin Bennett
Austin Bennett

Free competition is necessary for the establishment of big industry, because it is the only
condition of society in which big industry can make its way.
Having destroyed the social power of the nobility and the guildmasters, the bourgeois also
destroyed their political power. Having raised itself to the actual position of first class in society,
it proclaims itself to be also the dominant political class. This it does through the introduction of
the representative system which rests on bourgeois equality before the law and the recognition of
free competition, and in European countries takes the form of constitutional monarchy. In these
constitutional monarchies, only those who possess a certain capital are voters – that is to say, only
members of the bourgeoisie. These bourgeois voters choose the deputies, and these bourgeois
deputies, by using their right to refuse to vote taxes, choose a bourgeois government.
Third, everywhere the proletariat develops in step with the bourgeoisie. In proportion, as the
bourgeoisie grows in wealth, the proletariat grows in numbers. For, since the proletarians can be
employed only by capital, and since capital extends only through employing labor, it follows that
the growth of the proletariat proceeds at precisely the same pace as the growth of capital.
Simultaneously, this process draws members of the bourgeoisie and proletarians together into the
great cities where industry can be carried on most profitably, and by thus throwing great masses
in one spot it gives to the proletarians a consciousness of their own strength.
Moreover, the further this process advances, the more new labor-saving machines are invented,
the greater is the pressure exercised by big industry on wages, which, as we have seen, sink to
their minimum and therewith render the condition of the proletariat increasingly unbearable. The
growing dissatisfaction of the proletariat thus joins with its rising power to prepare a proletarian
social revolution.
– 12 –
What were the further consequences of the industrial
revolution?
Big industry created in the steam engine, and other machines, the means of endlessly expanding
industrial production, speeding it up, and cutting its costs. With production thus facilitated, the
free competition, which is necessarily bound up with big industry, assumed the most extreme
forms; a multitude of capitalists invaded industry, and, in a short while, more was produced than
was needed.
As a consequence, finished commodities could not be sold, and a so-called commercial crisis
broke out. Factories had to be closed, their owners went bankrupt, and the workers were without
bread. Deepest misery reigned everywhere.
After a time, the superfluous products were sold, the factories began to operate again, wages rose,
and gradually business got better than ever.
But it was not long before too many commodities were again produced and a new crisis broke
out, only to follow the same course as its predecessor.
Ever since the beginning of this (19th) century, the condition of industry has constantly fluctuated
between periods of prosperity and periods of crisis; nearly every five to seven years, a fresh crisis
has intervened, always with the greatest hardship for workers, and always accompanied by
general revolutionary stirrings and the direct peril to the whole existing order of things.
– 13 –
What follows from these periodic commercial crises?

Nolan Roberts
Nolan Roberts

Was not the abolition of private property possible at an
earlier time?
No. Every change in the social order, every revolution in property relations, is the necessary
consequence of the creation of new forces of production which no longer fit into the old property
relations.
Private property has not always existed.
When, towards the end of the Middle Ages, there arose a new mode of production which could
not be carried on under the then existing feudal and guild forms of property, this manufacture,
which had outgrown the old property relations, created a new property form, private property.
And for manufacture and the earliest stage of development of big industry, private property was
the only possible property form; the social order based on it was the only possible social order.
So long as it is not possible to produce so much that there is enough for all, with more left over
for expanding the social capital and extending the forces of production – so long as this is not
possible, there must always be a ruling class directing the use of society’s productive forces, and
a poor, oppressed class. How these classes are constituted depends on the stage of development.
The agrarian Middle Ages give us the baron and the serf; the cities of the later Middle Ages show
us the guildmaster and the journeyman and the day laborer; the 17th century has its
manufacturing workers; the 19th has big factory owners and proletarians.
It is clear that, up to now, the forces of production have never been developed to the point where
enough could be developed for all, and that private property has become a fetter and a barrier in
relation to the further development of the forces of production.
Now, however, the development of big industry has ushered in a new period. Capital and the
forces of production have been expanded to an unprecedented extent, and the means are at hand
to multiply them without limit in the near future. Moreover, the forces of production have been
concentrated in the hands of a few bourgeois, while the great mass of the people are more and
more falling into the proletariat, their situation becoming more wretched and intolerable in
proportion to the increase of wealth of the bourgeoisie. And finally, these mighty and easily
extended forces of production have so far outgrown private property and the bourgeoisie, that
they threaten at any moment to unleash the most violent disturbances of the social order. Now,
under these conditions, the abolition of private property has become not only possible but
absolutely necessary.
– 16 –
Will the peaceful abolition of private property be possible?
It would be desirable if this could happen, and the communists would certainly be the last to
oppose it. Communists know only too well that all conspiracies are not only useless, but even
harmful. They know all too well that revolutions are not made intentionally and arbitrarily, but
that, everywhere and always, they have been the necessary consequence of conditions which were
wholly independent of the will and direction of individual parties and entire classes.
But they also see that the development of the proletariat in nearly all civilized countries has been
violently suppressed, and that in this way the opponents of communism have been working
toward a revolution with all their strength. If the oppressed proletariat is finally driven to
revolution, then we communists will defend the interests of the proletarians with deeds a

Mason Ramirez
Mason Ramirez

Will it be possible for private property to be abolished at
one stroke?
No, no more than existing forces of production can at one stroke be multiplied to the extent
necessary for the creation of a communal society.
In all probability, the proletarian revolution will transform existing society gradually and will be
able to abolish private property only when the means of production are available in sufficient
quantity.
– 18 –
What will be the course of this revolution?
Above all, it will establish a democratic constitution, and through this, the direct or indirect
dominance of the proletariat. Direct in England, where the proletarians are already a majority of
the people. Indirect in France and Germany, where the majority of the people consists not only of
proletarians, but also of small peasants and petty bourgeois who are in the process of falling into
the proletariat, who are more and more dependent in all their political interests on the proletariat,
and who must, therefore, soon adapt to the demands of the proletariat. Perhaps this will cost a
second struggle, but the outcome can only be the victory of the proletariat.
Democracy would be wholly valueless to the proletariat if it were not immediately used as a
means for putting through measures directed against private property and ensuring the livelihood
of the proletariat. The main measures, emerging as the necessary result of existing relations, are
the following:
(i) Limitation of private property through progressive taxation, heavy inheritance
taxes, abolition of inheritance through collateral lines (brothers, nephews, etc.)
forced loans, etc.
(ii) Gradual expropriation of landowners, industrialists, railroad magnates and
shipowners, partly through competition by state industry, partly directly through
compensation in the form of bonds.
(iii) Confiscation of the possessions of all emigrants and rebels against the
majority of the people.
(iv) Organization of labor or employment of proletarians on publicly owned land,
in factories and workshops, with competition among the workers being abolished
and with the factory owners, in so far as they still exist, being obliged to pay the
same high wages as those paid by the state.
(v) An equal obligation on all members of society to work until such time as
private property has been completely abolished. Formation of industrial armies,
especially for agriculture.
(vi) Centralization of money and credit in the hands of the state through a national
bank with state capital, and the suppression of all private banks and bankers.
(vii) Increase in the number of national factories, workshops, railroads, ships;
bringing new lands into cultivation and improvement of land already under
cultivation – all in proportion to the growth of the capital and labor force at the
disposal of the nation.
(viii) Education of all children, from the moment they can leave their mother’s
care, in national establishments at national cost. Education and production
together.

Ryan Campbell
Ryan Campbell

being expanded much further. Instead of generating misery, overproduction will reach beyond the
elementary requirements of society to assure the satisfaction of the needs of all; it will create new
needs and, at the same time, the means of satisfying them. It will become the condition of, and the
stimulus to, new progress, which will no longer throw the whole social order into confusion, as
progress has always done in the past. Big industry, freed from the pressure of private property,
will undergo such an expansion that what we now see will seem as petty in comparison as
manufacture seems when put beside the big industry of our own day. This development of
industry will make available to society a sufficient mass of products to satisfy the needs of
everyone.
The same will be true of agriculture, which also suffers from the pressure of private property and
is held back by the division of privately owned land into small parcels. Here, existing
improvements and scientific procedures will be put into practice, with a resulting leap forward
which will assure to society all the products it needs.
In this way, such an abundance of goods will be able to satisfy the needs of all its members.
The division of society into different, mutually hostile classes will then become unnecessary.
Indeed, it will be not only unnecessary but intolerable in the new social order. The existence of
classes originated in the division of labor, and the division of labor, as it has been known up to
the present, will completely disappear. For mechanical and chemical processes are not enough to
bring industrial and agricultural production up to the level we have described; the capacities of
the men who make use of these processes must undergo a corresponding development.
Just as the peasants and manufacturing workers of the last century changed their whole way of
life and became quite different people when they were drawn into big industry, in the same way,
communal control over production by society as a whole, and the resulting new development, will
both require an entirely different kind of human material.
People will no longer be, as they are today, subordinated to a single branch of production, bound
to it, exploited by it; they will no longer develop one of their faculties at the expense of all others;
they will no longer know only one branch, or one branch of a single branch, of production as a
whole. Even industry as it is today is finding such people less and less useful.
Industry controlled by society as a whole, and operated according to a plan, presupposes wellrounded human beings, their faculties developed in balanced fashion, able to see the system of
production in its entirety.
The form of the division of labor which makes one a peasant, another a cobbler, a third a factory
worker, a fourth a stock-market operator, has already been undermined by machinery and will
completely disappear. Education will enable young people quickly to familiarize themselves with
the whole system of production and to pass from one branch of production to another in response
to the needs of society or their own inclinations. It will, therefore, free them from the one-sided
character which the present-day division of labor impresses upon every individual. Communist
society will, in this way, make it possible for its members to put their comprehensively developed
faculties to full use. But, when this happens, classes will necessarily disappear. It follows that
society organized on a communist basis is incompatible with the existence of classes on the one
hand, and that the very building of such a society provides the means of abolishing class
differences on the other.
A corollary of this is that the difference between city and country is destined to disappear. The
management of agriculture and industry by the same people rather than by two different classes
of people is, if only for purely material reasons, a necessary condition of communist association.
The dispersal of the agricultural population on the land, alongside the crowding of the industrial
population into the great cities, is a condition which corresponds to an undeveloped state of both
agriculture and industry and can already be felt as an obstacle to further development

Isaac Garcia
Isaac Garcia

The general co-operation of all members of society for the purpose of planned exploitation of the
forces of production, the expansion of production to the point where it will satisfy the needs of
all, the abolition of a situation in which the needs of some are satisfied at the expense of the needs
of others, the complete liquidation of classes and their conflicts, the rounded development of the
capacities of all members of society through the elimination of the present division of labor,
through industrial education, through engaging in varying activities, through the participation by
all in the enjoyments produced by all, through the combination of city and country – these are the
main consequences of the abolition of private property.
– 21 –
What will be the influence of communist society on the
family?
It will transform the relations between the sexes into a purely private matter which concerns only
the persons involved and into which society has no occasion to intervene. It can do this since it
does away with private property and educates children on a communal basis, and in this way
removes the two bases of traditional marriage – the dependence rooted in private property, of the
women on the man, and of the children on the parents.
And here is the answer to the outcry of the highly moral philistines against the “community of
women”. Community of women is a condition which belongs entirely to bourgeois society and
which today finds its complete expression in prostitution. But prostitution is based on private
property and falls with it. Thus, communist society, instead of introducing community of women,
in fact abolishes it.
– 22 –
What will be the attitude of communism to existing
nationalities?
The nationalities of the peoples associating themselves in accordance with the principle of
community will be compelled to mingle with each other as a result of this association and thereby
to dissolve themselves, just as the various estate and class distinctions must disappear through the
abolition of their basis, private property.8
– 23 –
What will be its attitude to existing religions?
All religions so far have been the expression of historical stages of development of individual
peoples or groups of peoples. But communism is the stage of historical development which
makes all existing religions superfluous and brings about their disappearance.9
– 24 –
How do communists differ from socialists?
The so-called socialists are divided into three categories.
[ Reactionary Socialists: ]
The first category consists of adherents of a feudal and patriarchal society which has already been
destroyed, and is still daily being destroyed, by big industry and world trade and their creation,
bourgeois society. This category concludes, from the evils of existing society, that feudal and
patriarchal society must be restored because it was free of such evils. In one way or another, all
their proposals are directed to this end.

David Gonzalez
David Gonzalez

In America, where a democratic constitution has already been established, the communists must
make the common cause with the party which will turn this constitution against the bourgeoisie
and use it in the interests of the proletariat – that is, with the agrarian National Reformers.11
In Switzerland, the Radicals, though a very mixed party, are the only group with which the
communists can co-operate, and, among these Radicals, the Vaudois and Genevese are the most
advanced.
In Germany, finally, the decisive struggle now on the order of the day is that between the
bourgeoisie and the absolute monarchy. Since the communists cannot enter upon the decisive
struggle between themselves and the bourgeoisie until the bourgeoisie is in power, it follows that
it is in the interest of the communists to help the bourgeoisie to power as soon as possible in order
the sooner to be able to overthrow it. Against the governments, therefore, the communists must
continually support the radical liberal party, taking care to avoid the self-deceptions of the
bourgeoisie and not fall for the enticing promises of benefits which a victory for the bourgeoisie
would allegedly bring to the proletariat. The sole advantages which the proletariat would derive
from a bourgeois victory would consist
(i) in various concessions which would facilitate the unification of the proletariat
into a closely knit, battle-worthy, and organized class; and
(ii) in the certainly that, on the very day the absolute monarchies fall, the struggle
between bourgeoisie and proletariat will start. From that day on, the policy of the
communists will be the same as it now is in the countries where the bourgeoisie is
already in power.

Isaiah Diaz
Isaiah Diaz

“Demands of the Communist Party in Germany” were written by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels in
Paris between March 21 (when Engels arrived in Paris from Brussels) and March 24, 1848. This
document was discussed by members of the Central Authority, who approved and signed it as the.
political programme of the Communist League in the revolution that broke out in Germany. In March
it was printed as a leaflet, for distribution among revolutionary German emigrant workers who were
about to return home. Austrian and German diplomats in Paris informed their respective governments
about this as early as March 27, 28 and 29. (The Austrian Ambassador enclosed in his letter a copy of
the leaflet which he dated “March 25”.) The leaflet soon reached members of the Communist League
in other countries, in particular, German emigrant workers in London.
Early in April, the “Demands of the Communist Party in Germany” were published in such German
democratic papers as Berliner Zeitungs-Halle (special supplement to No. 82, April 5, 1848),
Düsseldorfer Zeitung (No. 96, April 5, 1848), Mannheimer Abendzeitung (No. 96, April 6, 1848),
Trier’sche Zeitung (No. 97, April 6, 1848, supplement), Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung (No. 100, April
9, 1848, supplement), and Zeitung für das deutsche Volk (No. 2 1, April 9, 1848).
Marx and Engels, who left for Germany round about April 6 and some time later settled in Cologne,
did their best along with their followers to popularise this programme document during the revolution.
In 1848 and 1849 it was repeatedly published in the periodical press and in leaflet form. Not later than
September 10, 1848, the “Demands” were printed in Cologne as a leaflet for circulation by the
Cologne Workers’ Association both in the town itself and in a number of districts of Rhenish Prussia.
In addition to minor stylistic changes, point 10 in the text of the leaflet was worded differently from
that published in March-April 1848. At the Second Democratic Congress held in Berlin in October
1848, Friedrich Beust, delegate from the Cologne Workers’ Association, spoke, on behalf of the social
question commission, in favour of adopting a programme of action closely following the “Demands”.
In November and December 1848, various points of the “Demands” were discussed at meetings of the
Cologne Workers’ Association. Many editions of the “Demands” published during the revolution and
after its defeat have survived to this day in their original form, some of them as copies kept in the
police archives.
At the end of 1848 or the beginning of 1849 an abridged version of the “Demands” was published in
pamphlet form by Weller Publishers in Leipzig. The slogan at the beginning of the document, the
second paragraph of point 9 and the last sentence of point 10 were omitted, and the words “The
Committee” were not included among the signatories. In 1853, an abridged version of the “Demands”
was printed, together with other documents of the Communist League, in the first part of the book Die
Communisten-Verschworungen des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts published in Berlin for purposes of
information by Wermuth and Stieber, two police officials, who staged a trial against the Communists
in Cologne in 1852. Later Engels reproduced the main points of the “Demands” in his essay On the
History of the Communist League, published in November 1885 in the newspaper Sozialdemokrat, and
as an introduction to the pamphlet: K. Marx, Enthüllungen über den Kommunisten Prozess zu Köln,
Hottingen-Zürich, 1885.
English translations of the “Demands of the Communist Party in Germany” appeared in the
collections: The Communist Manifesto of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels with an introduction and
explanatory notes by D. Ryazanoff, Martin Lawrence, London (1930); K. Marx, Selected Works, Vol.
II, ed. V. Adoratsky, Moscow-Leningrad, Co-operative Publishing Society of Foreign Workers in the
USSR (1936); ibid., New York (1 936); Birth of the Communist Manifesto, edited and annotated, with
an Introduction by D. J. Struik, International Publishers, New York, 197 1, and in other publications.
The text is from From MECW Volume 7, p. 3.

Zachary Ramirez
Zachary Ramirez

The “Paris Commune” was composed by Karl Marx as an address to the General Council of the
International, and included in a book, “The Civil War in France,” with the aim of distributing to
workers of all countries a clear understanding of the character and world-wide significance of the
heroic struggle of the Communards and their historical experience to learn from. The book was widely
circulated by 1872 it was translated into several languages and published throughout Europe and the
United States.
The first address was delivered on July 23rd, 1870, five days after the beginning of the FrancoPrussian War. The second address, delivered on September 9, 1870, gave a historical overview of the
events a week after the army of Bonaparte was defeated. The third address, delivered on May 30,
1871, two days after the defeat of the Paris Commune – detailed the significance and the underlining
causes of the first workers government ever created.
The Civil War in France was originally published by Marx as only the third address, only the first
half of which is reproduced here. In 1891, on the 20th anniversary of the Paris Commune, Engels
put together a new collection of the work. Engels decided to include the first two addresses that
Marx made to the International.
The Address is included here because it can be regarded as an amendment to the Manifesto,
clarifying a number of issues relating to the state based on the experience of the Commune.
On the dawn of March 18, Paris arose to the thunder-burst of “Vive la Commune!” What is the
Commune, that sphinx so tantalizing to the bourgeois mind?
“The proletarians of Paris,” said the Central Committee in its manifesto of March 18, “amidst the
failures and treasons of the ruling classes, have understood that the hour has struck for them to
save the situation by taking into their own hands the direction of public affairs…. They have
understood that it is their imperious duty, and their absolute right, to render themselves masters of
their own destinies, by seizing upon the governmental power.”
But the working class cannot simply lay hold of the ready-made state machinery, and wield
it for its own purposes.
The centralized state power, with its ubiquitous organs of standing army, police, bureaucracy,
clergy, and judicature – organs wrought after the plan of a systematic and hierarchic division of
labor – originates from the days of absolute monarchy, serving nascent bourgeois society as a
mighty weapon in its struggle against feudalism. Still, its development remained clogged by all
manner of medieval rubbish, seignorial rights, local privileges, municipal and guild monopolies,
and provincial constitutions. The gigantic broom of the French Revolution of the 18th century
swept away all these relics of bygone times, thus clearing simultaneously the social soil of its last
hindrances to the superstructure of the modern state edifice raised under the First Empire, itself
the offspring of the coalition wars of old semi-feudal Europe against modern France.
During the subsequent regimes, the government, placed under parliamentary control – that is,
under the direct control of the propertied classes – became not only a hotbed of huge national
debts and crushing taxes; with its irresistible allurements of place, pelf, and patronage, it became
not only the bone of contention between the rival factions and adventurers of the ruling classes;
but its political character changed simultaneously with the economic changes of society. At the
same pace at which the progress of modern industry developed, widened, intensified the class
antagonism between capital and labor, the state power assumed more and more the character of
the national power of capital over labor, of a public force organized for social enslavement, of an
engine of class despotism.

Gabriel Mitchell
Gabriel Mitchell

Attached: frog.jpg (51.62 KB, 800x596)

Landon Powell
Landon Powell

After every revolution marking a progressive phase in the class struggle, the purely repressive
character of the state power stands out in bolder and bolder relief. The Revolution of 1830,
resulting in the transfer of government from the landlords to the capitalists, transferred it from the
more remote to the more direct antagonists of the working men. The bourgeois republicans, who,
in the name of the February Revolution, took the state power, used it for the June [1848]
massacres, in order to convince the working class that “social” republic means the republic
entrusting their social subjection, and in order to convince the royalist bulk of the bourgeois and
landlord class that they might safely leave the cares and emoluments of government to the
bourgeois “republicans.”
However, after their one heroic exploit of June, the bourgeois republicans had, from the front, to
fall back to the rear of the “Party of Order” – a combination formed by all the rival fractions and
factions of the appropriating classes. The proper form of their joint-stock government was the
parliamentary republic, with Louis Bonaparte for its president. Theirs was a regime of avowed
class terrorism and deliberate insult towards the “vile multitude.”
If the parliamentary republic, as M. Thiers said, “divided them [the different fractions of the
ruling class] least,” it opened an abyss between that class and the whole body of society outside
their spare ranks. The restraints by which their own divisions had under former regimes still
checked the state power, were removed by their union; and in view of the threatening upheaval of
the proletariat, they now used that state power mercilessly and ostentatiously as the national war
engine of capital against labor.
In their uninterrupted crusade against the producing masses, they were, however, bound not only
to invest the executive with continually increased powers of repression, but at the same time to
divest their own parliamentary stronghold – the National Assembly – one by one, of all its own
means of defence against the Executive. The Executive, in the person of Louis Bonaparte, turned
them out. The natural offspring of the “Party of Order” republic was the Second Empire.
The empire, with the coup d’état for its birth certificate, universal suffrage for its sanction, and
the sword for its sceptre, professed to rest upon the peasantry, the large mass of producers not
directly involved in the struggle of capital and labor. It professed to save the working class by
breaking down parliamentarism, and, with it, the undisguised subserviency of government to the
propertied classes. It professed to save the propertied classes by upholding their economic
supremacy over the working class; and, finally, it professed to unite all classes by reviving for all
the chimera of national glory.
In reality, it was the only form of government possible at a time when the bourgeoisie had already
lost, and the working class had not yet acquired, the faculty of ruling the nation. It was acclaimed
throughout the world as the savior of society. Under its sway, bourgeois society, freed from
political cares, attained a development unexpected even by itself. Its industry and commerce
expanded to colossal dimensions; financial swindling celebrated cosmopolitan orgies; the misery
of the masses was set off by a shameless display of gorgeous, meretricious and debased luxury.
The state power, apparently soaring high above society and the very hotbed of all its corruptions.
Its own rottenness, and the rottenness of the society it had saved, were laid bare by the bayonet of
Prussia, herself eagerly bent upon transferring the supreme seat of that regime from Paris to
Berlin. Imperialism is, at the same time, the most prostitute and the ultimate form of the state
power which nascent bourgeois society had commenced to elaborate as a means of its own
emancipation from feudalism, and which full-grown bourgeois society had finally transformed
into a means for the enslavement of labor by capital.
The direct antithesis to the empire was the Commune. The cry of “social republic,” with which
the February [1848] Revolution was ushered in by the Paris proletariat, did but express a vague
aspiration after a republic that was not only to supercede the monarchical form of class rule, but
class rule itself. The Commune was the positive form of that republic

Dominic Lopez
Dominic Lopez

Paris, the central seat of the old governmental power, and, at the same time, the social stronghold
of the French working class, had risen in arms against the attempt of Thiers and the Rurals to
restore and perpetuate that old governmental power bequeathed to them by the empire. Paris
could resist only because, in consequence of the siege, it had got rid of the army, and replaced it
by a National Guard, the bulk of which consisted of working men. This fact was now to be
transformed into an institution. The first decree of the Commune, therefore, was the suppression
of the standing army, and the substitution for it of the armed people.
The Commune was formed of the municipal councillors, chosen by universal suffrage in the
various wards of the town, responsible and revocable at short terms. The majority of its members
were naturally working men, or acknowledged representatives of the working class. The
Commune was to be a working, not a parliamentary body, executive and legislative at the same
time.
Instead of continuing to be the agent of the Central Government, the police was at once stripped
of its political attributes, and turned into the responsible, and at all times revocable, agent of the
Commune. So were the officials of all other branches of the administration. From the members of
the Commune downwards, the public service had to be done at workman’s wage. The vested
interests and the representation allowances of the high dignitaries of state disappeared along with
the high dignitaries themselves. Public functions ceased to be the private property of the tools of
the Central Government. Not only municipal administration, but the whole initiative hitherto
exercised by the state was laid into the hands of the Commune.
Having once got rid of the standing army and the police – the physical force elements of the old
government – the Commune was anxious to break the spiritual force of repression, the “parsonpower,” by the disestablishment and disendowment of all churches as proprietary bodies. The
priests were sent back to the recesses of private life, there to feed upon the alms of the faithful in
imitation of their predecessors, the apostles.
The whole of the educational institutions were opened to the people gratuitously, and at the same
time cleared of all interference of church and state. Thus, not only was education made accessible
to all, but science itself freed from the fetters which class prejudice and governmental force had
imposed upon it.
The judicial functionaries were to be divested of that sham independence which had but served to
mask their abject subserviency to all succeeding governments to which, in turn, they had taken,
and broken, the oaths of allegiance. Like the rest of public servants, magistrates and judges were
to be elective, responsible, and revocable.
The Paris Commune was, of course, to serve as a model to all the great industrial centres of
France. The communal regime once established in Paris and the secondary centres, the old
centralized government would in the provinces, too, have to give way to the self-government of
the producers.
In a rough sketch of national organisation, which the Commune had no time to develop, it states
clearly that the Commune was to be the political form of even the smallest country hamlet, and
that in the rural districts the standing army was to be replaced by a national militia, with an
extremely short term of service. The rural communities of every district were to administer their
common affairs by an assembly of delegates in the central town, and these district assemblies
were again to send deputies to the National Delegation in Paris, each delegate to be at any time
revocable and bound by the mandat imperatif (formal instructions) of his constituents. The few
but important functions which would still remain for a central government were not to be
suppressed, as has been intentionally misstated, but were to be discharged by Communal and
thereafter responsible agents.
The unity of the nation was not to be broken, but, on the contrary, to be organized by Communal
Constitution, and to become a reality by the destruction of the state power which claimed to be

Connor Rodriguez
Connor Rodriguez

producing against the appropriating class, the political form at last discovered under which to
work out the economical emancipation of labor.
Except on this last condition, the Communal Constitution would have been an impossibility and a
delusion. The political rule of the producer cannot co-exist with the perpetuation of his social
slavery. The Commune was therefore to serve as a lever for uprooting the economical foundation
upon which rests the existence of classes, and therefore of class rule. With labor emancipated,
every man becomes a working man, and productive labor ceases to be a class attribute.
It is a strange fact. In spite of all the tall talk and all the immense literature, for the last 60 years,
about emancipation of labor, no sooner do the working men anywhere take the subject into their
own hands with a will, than uprises at once all the apologetic phraseology of the mouthpieces of
present society with its two poles of capital and wage-slavery (the landlord now is but the
sleeping partner of the capitalist), as if the capitalist society was still in its purest state of virgin
innocence, with its antagonisms still undeveloped, with its delusions still unexploded, with its
prostitute realities not yet laid bare. The Commune, they exclaim, intends to abolish property, the
basis of all civilization!
Yes, gentlemen, the Commune intended to abolish that class property which makes the labor of
the many the wealth of the few. It aimed at the expropriation of the expropriators. It wanted to
make individual property a truth by transforming the means of production, land, and capital, now
chiefly the means of enslaving and exploiting labor, into mere instruments of free and associated
labor. But this is communism, “impossible” communism! Why, those member of the ruling
classes who are intelligent enough to perceive the impossibility of continuing the present system
– and they are many – have become the obtrusive and full-mouthed apostles of co-operative
production. If co-operative production is not to remain a sham and a snare; if it is to supersede the
capitalist system; if united co-operative societies are to regulate national production upon
common plan, thus taking it under their own control, and putting an end to the constant anarchy
and periodical convulsions which are the fatality of capitalist production – what else, gentlemen,
would it be but communism, “possible” communism?
The working class did not expect miracles from the Commune. They have no ready-made utopias
to introduce par decret du peuple. They know that in order to work out their own emancipation,
and along with it that higher form to which present society is irresistibly tending by its own
economical agencies, they will have to pass through long struggles, through a series of historic
processes, transforming circumstances and men. They have no ideals to realize, but to set free the
elements of the new society with which old collapsing bourgeois society itself is pregnant. In the
full consciousness of their historic mission, and with the heroic resolve to act up to it, the working
class can afford to smile at the coarse invective of the gentlemen’s gentlemen with pen and
inkhorn, and at the didactic patronage of well-wishing bourgeois-doctrinaires, pouring forth their
ignorant platitudes and sectarian crotchets in the oracular tone of scientific infallibility.
When the Paris Commune took the management of the revolution in its own hands; when plain
working men for the first time dared to infringe upon the governmental privilege of their “natural
superiors,” and, under circumstances of unexampled difficulty, performed it at salaries the highest
of which barely amounted to one-fifth what, according to high scientific authority*
, is the
minimum required for a secretary to a certain metropolitan school-board – the old world writhed
in convulsions of rage at the sight of the Red Flag, the symbol of the Republic of Labor, floating
over the Hôtel de Ville.
And yet, this was the first revolution in which the working class was openly acknowledged as the
only class capable of social initiative, even by the great bulk of the Paris bourgeois –
shopkeepers, tradesmen, merchants – the wealthy capitalist alone excepted. The Commune had

Christian Evans
Christian Evans

saved them by a sagacious settlement of that ever recurring cause of dispute among the bourgeois
themselves – the debtor and creditor accounts.15 The same portion of the bourgeois, after they had
assisted in putting down the working men’s insurrection of June 1848, had been at once
unceremoniously sacrificed to their creditors16 by the then Constituent Assembly. But this was
not their only motive for now rallying around the working class. They felt there was but one
alternative – the Commune, or the empire – under whatever name it might reappear. The empire
had ruined them economically by the havoc it made of public wealth, by the wholesale financial
swindling it fostered, by the props it lent to the artificially accelerated centralization of capital,
and the concomitant expropriation of their own ranks. It had suppressed them politically, it had
shocked them morally by its orgies, it had insulted their Voltairianism by handing over the
education of their children to the fréres Ignorantins,
17 it had revolted their national feeling as
Frenchmen by precipitating them headlong into a war which left only one equivalent for the ruins
it made – the disappearance of the empire. In fact, after the exodus from Paris of the high
Bonapartist and capitalist boheme, the true bourgeois Party of Order came out in the shape of the
“Union Republicaine,”18 enrolling themselves under the colors of the Commune and defending it
against the wilful misconstructions of Thiers. Whether the gratitude of this great body of the
bourgeois will stand the present severe trial, time must show.
The Commune was perfectly right in telling the peasants that “its victory was their only hope.” Of
all the lies hatched at Versailles and re-echoed by the glorious European penny-a-liner, one of the
most tremendous was that the Rurals represented the French peasantry. Think only of the love of
the French peasant for the men to whom, after 1815, he had to pay the milliard indemnity.19 In the
eyes of the French peasant, the very existence of a great landed proprietor is in itself an
encroachment on his conquests of 1789. The bourgeois, in 1848, had burdened his plot of land
with the additional tax of 45 cents, in the franc; but then he did so in the name of the revolution;
while now he had fomented a civil war against revolution, to shift on to the peasant’s shoulders
the chief load of the 5 milliards of indemnity to be paid to the Prussian. The Commune, on the
other hand, in one of its first proclamations, declared that the true originators of the war would be
made to pay its cost. The Commune would have delivered the peasant of the blood tax – would
have given him a cheap government – transformed his present blood-suckers, the notary,
advocate, executor, and other judicial vampires, into salaried communal agents, elected by, and
responsible to, himself. It would have freed him of the tyranny of the garde champetre, the
gendarme, and the prefect; would have put enlightenment by the schoolmaster in the place of
stultification by the priest. And the French peasant is, above all, a man of reckoning. He would
find it extremely reasonable that the pay of the priest, instead of being extorted by the taxgatherer, should only depend upon the spontaneous action of the parishioners’ religious instinct.
Such were the great immediate boons which the rule of the Commune – and that rule alone – held
out to the French peasantry. It is, therefore, quite superfluous here to expatiate upon the more
complicated but vital problems which the Commune alone was able, and at the same time
compelled, to solve in favor of the peasant – viz., the hypothecary debt, lying like an incubus
upon his parcel of soil, the prolétariat foncier (the rural proletariat), daily growing upon it, and
his expropriation from it enforced, at a more and more rapid rate, by the very development of
modern agriculture and the competition of capitalist farming.
The French peasant had elected Louis Bonaparte president of the republic; but the Party of Order
created the empire. What the French peasant really wants he commenced to show in 1849 and
1850, by opposing his maire to the government’s prefect, his school-master to the government’s
priest, and himself to the government’s gendarme. All the laws made by the Party of Order in
January and February 1850 were avowed measures of repression against the peasant. The peasant
was a Bonapartist, because the Great Revolution, with all its benefits to him, was, in his eyes,
personified in Napoleon. This delusion, rapidly breaking down under the Second Empire (and in

Owen Price
Owen Price

1816; with the savage warfare of Versailles outside, and its attempts at corruption and conspiracy
inside Paris – would the Commune not have shamefully betrayed its trust by affecting to keep all
the decencies and appearances of liberalism as in a time of profound peace? Had the government
of the Commune been akin to that of M. Thiers, there would have been no more occasion to
suppress Party of Order papers at Paris that there was to suppress Communal papers at Versailles.
It was irritating indeed to the Rurals that at the very same time they declared the return to the
church to be the only means of salvation for France, the infidel Commune unearthed the peculiar
mysteries of the Picpus nunnery22, and of the Church of St. Laurent. It was a satire upon M.
Thiers that, while he showered grand crosses upon the Bonapartist generals in acknowledgment
of their mastery in losing battles, singing capitulations, and turning cigarettes at Wilhelmshöhe,23
the Commune dismissed and arrested its generals whenever they were suspected of neglecting
their duties. The expulsion from, and arrest by, the Commune of one of its members [Blanchet]
who had slipped in under a false name, and had undergone at Lyons six days’ imprisonment for
simple bankruptcy, was it not a deliberate insult hurled at the forger, Jules Favre, then still the
foreign minister of France, still selling France to Bismarck, and still dictating his orders to that
paragon government of Belgium? But indeed the Commune did not pretend to infallibility, the
invariable attribute of all governments of the old stamp. It published its doings and sayings, it
initiated the public into all its shortcomings.
In every revolution there intrude, at the side of its true agents, men of different stamp; some of
them survivors of and devotees to past revolutions, without insight into the present movement,
but preserving popular influence by their known honesty and courage, or by the sheer force of
tradition; others mere brawlers who, by dint of repeating year after year the same set of
stereotyped declarations against the government of the day, have sneaked into the reputation of
revolutionists of the first water. After March 18, some such men did also turn up, and in some
cases contrived to play pre-eminent parts. As far as their power went, they hampered the real
action of the working class, exactly as men of that sort have hampered the full development of
every previous revolution. They are an unavoidable evil: with time they are shaken off; but time
was not allowed to the Commune.
Wonderful, indeed, was the change the Commune had wrought in Paris! No longer any trace of
the tawdry Paris of the Second Empire! No longer was Paris the rendezvous of British landlords,
Irish absentees, 24 American ex-slaveholders and shoddy men, Russian ex-serfowners, and
Wallachian boyards. No more corpses at the morgue, no nocturnal burglaries, scarcely any
robberies; in fact, for the first time since the days of February 1848, the streets of Paris were safe,
and that without any police of any kind.
“We,” said a member of the Commune, “hear no longer of assassination, theft, and personal
assault; it seems indeed as if the police had dragged along with it to Versailles all its Conservative
friends.”
The cocottes had refound the scent of their protectors – the absconding men of family, religion,
and, above all, of property. In their stead, the real women of Paris showed again at the surface –
heroic, noble, and devoted, like the women of antiquity. Working, thinking fighting, bleeding
Paris – almost forgetful, in its incubation of a new society, of the Cannibals at its gates – radiant
in the enthusiasm of its historic initiative!
Opposed to this new world at Paris, behold the old world at Versailles – that assembly of the
ghouls of all defunct regimes, Legitimists and Orleanists, eager to feed upon the carcass of the
nation – with a tail of antediluvian republicans, sanctioning, by their presence in the Assembly,
the slaveholders’ rebellion, relying for the maintenance of their parliamentary republic upon the
vanity of the senile mountebank at its head, and caricaturing 1789 by holding their ghastly

Christian Reed
Christian Reed

meetings in the Jeu de Paume.1
There it was, this Assembly, the representative of everything dead
in France, propped up to the semblance of life by nothing but the swords of the generals of Louis
Bonaparte. Paris all truth, Versailles all lie; and that lie vented through the mouth of Thiers.
Thiers tells a deputation of the mayors of the Seine-et-Oise – “You may rely upon my word,
which I have never broken!”
He tells the Assembly itself that “it was the most freely elected and most liberal Assembly France
ever possessed”; he tells his motley soldiery that it was “the admiration of the world, and the
finest army France ever possessed”; he tells the provinces that the bombardment of Paris by him
was a myth: “If some cannon-shots have been fired, it was not the deed of the army of Versailles,
but of some insurgents trying to make believe that they are fighting, while they dare not show
their faces.” He again tells the provinces that “the artillery of Versailles does not bombard Paris,
but only cannonades it.” He tells the Archbishop of Paris that the pretended executions and
reprisals (!) attributed to the Versailles troops were all moonshine. He tells Paris that he was only
anxious “to free it from the hideous tyrants who oppress it,” and that, in fact, the Paris of the
Commune was “but a handful of criminals.”
The Paris of M. Thiers was not the real Paris of the “vile multitude,” but a phantom Paris, the
Paris of the francs-fileurs,
25 the Paris of the Boulevards, male and female – the rich, the capitalist,
the gilded, the idle Paris, now thronging with its lackeys, its blacklegs, its literary bohome, and its
cocottes at Versailles, Saint-Denis, Rueil, and Saint-Germain; considering the civil war but an
agreeable diversion, eyeing the battle going on through telescopes, counting the rounds of
cannon, swearing by their own honour and that of their prostitutes, that the performance was far
better got up than it used to be at the Porte St. Martin. The men who fell were really dead; the
cries of the wounded were cries in good earnest; and, besides, the whole thing was so intensely
historical.
This is the Paris of M. Thiers, as the emigr

Jason Sanchez
Jason Sanchez

1
The first Russian translation of the Manifesto of the Communist Party was made by Bakunin, who
despite being one of Marx and Engels’ most pronounced opponents in the working class movement,
saw the great revolutionary importance contained within the Manifesto. Published in Geneva in 1869
(printing it in Russia was impossible due to state censorship), Bakunin’ s translation was not
completely accurate, and was replaced a decade later by Plekhanov’s translation in 1882, for which
both Marx and Engels wrote a preface.
2
A reference to the events that occurred in Russia after the assassination, on March, 1, 1881, of
Emperor Alexander II by Narodnaya Volya members. Alexander III, his successor, was staying in
Gatchina for fear of further terrorism.
3
This preface was written by Engels on May 1, 1890, when, in accordance with the decision of the
Paris Congress of the Second International (July 1889), mass demonstrations, strikes and meetings
were held in numerous European and American countries. The workers put forward the demand for an
8 hour working day and other demands set forth by the Congress. From that day forward workers all
over the world celebrate the first of May as a day of international proletarian solidarity.
4
A reference to the movement for an electoral reform which, under the pressure of the working class,
was passed by the British House of Commons in 1831 and finally endorsed by the House of Lords in
June, 1832. The reform was directed against monopoly rule of the landed and finance aristocracy and
opened the way to Parliament for the representatives of the industrial bourgeoisie. Neither workers nor
the petty-bourgeois were allowed electoral rights, despite assurances they would.
5
The famous final phrase of the Manifesto, “Working Men of All Countries, Unite!”, in the original
German is: “Proletarier aller Länder, vereinigt euch!” Thus, a more correct translation would be
“Proletarians of all countries, Unite!”
“Workers of the World, Unite. You have nothing to lose but your chains!” is a popularisation of the
last three sentences, and is not found in any official translation. Since this English translation was
approved by Engels, we have kept the original intact.
6
In their works written in later periods, Marx and Engels substituted the more accurate concepts of
“sale of labour power”, “value of labour power” and “price of labour power” (first introduced by
Marx) for “sale of labour”, “value of labour” and “price of labour”, as used here.
7
Engels left half a page blank here in the manuscript. The “Draft of the Communist Confession of
Faith,” has the answer shown for the same question (Number 12).
8
Engels’ put “unchanged” here, referring to the answer in the June draft under No. 21 as shown.
9
Similarly, this refers to the answer to Question 23 in the June draft.
10 The Chartists were the participants in the political movement of the British workers which lasted
from the 1830s to the middle 1850s and had as its slogan the adoption of a People’s Charter,
demanding universal franchise and a series of conditions guaranteeing voting rights for all workers.
Lenin defined Chartism as the world’s “first broad, truly mass and politically organized proletarian
revolutionary movement” (Collected Works, Eng. ed., Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1965, Vol. 29, p.
309.) The decline of the Chartist movement was due to the strengthening of Britain’s industrial and
commercial monopoly and the bribing of the upper stratum of the working class (“the labour
aristocracy”) by the British bourgeoisie out of its super-profits. Both factors led to the strengthening of
opportunist tendencies in this stratum as expressed, in particular, by the refusal of the trade union
leaders to support Chartism.
11 Probably a references to the National Reform Association, founded during the 1840s by George H.
Evans, with headquarters in New York City, which had for its motto, “Vote Yourself a Farm”.

Ian Diaz
Ian Diaz

12 A top-down system of appointing officials in bourgeois systems, where high-up officials appoint
many or all lower officials.
13 Girondins – The party of the influential bourgeoisie during the French revolution at the end of the
18th century. (The name is derived from the Department of Gironde.) It came out against the Jacobin
government and the revolutionary masses which supported it, under the banner of defending the
departments’ right to autonomy and federation.
14 The party of the influential bourgeoisie during the French revolution at the end of the 18th century.
(The name is derived from the Department of Gironde.) It came out against the Jacobin government
and the revolutionary masses which supported it, under the banner of defending the departments’ right
to autonomy and federation.
15 A reference to the Paris Commune’s decree of April 16, 1871, providing for payment of all debts in
instalments over three years and abolition of interest on them.
16 On Aug. 22, 1848, the Constituent Assembly rejected the bill on “amiable agreements” (concordats
á l’amiable) aimed to introduce the deferred payment of debts. As a result of this measure, a
considerable section of the petty-bourgeoisie were utterly ruined and found themselves completely
dependent on the creditors of the richest bourgeoisie.
17 Fréres Ignorantins – Ignorant Brothers, a nickname for a religious order, founded in Rheims in
1680, whose members pledged themselves to educate children of the poor. The pupils received a
predominantly religious education and barely any knowledge otherwise.
18 Alliance républicaine des Départements – a political association of petty-bourgeois representatives
from the various departments of France, who lived in Paris; calling on the people to fight against the
Versailles government and the monarchist National Assembly and to support the Commune
throughout the country.
19 The law of April 27, 1825 on the payment of compensation to the former émigrés for the landed
states confiscated from them during the preceding French Revolution.
20 The Vendôme Column was erected between 1806 and 1810 in Paris in honour of the victories of
Napoleonic France; it was made out of the bronze captured from enemy guns and was crowned by a
statue of Napoleon. On May 16, 1871, by order of the Paris Commune, the Vendôme Column was
pulled down.
21 During the Second Empire, Baron Haussmann was Prefect of the Department of the Seine (the City
of Paris). He introduced a number of changes in the layout of the city for the purpose of crushing
workers’ revolts.
22 In the Picpus nunnery cases of the nuns being incarcerated in cells for many years were exposed and
instruments of torture were found; in the church of St. Laurent a secret cemetery was found attesting
to the murders that had been committed there. These facts were exposed by the Commune’s
newspaper Mot d’Ordre on May 5, 1871, and in a pamphlet Les Crimes des congrégations religieuses.
23 The chief occupation of the French prisoners of war in Wilhelmshöhe (those captured after the
Battle of Sedan) was making cigars for their own use.
24 Rich landowners who hardly ever visited their estates, but instead had their land managed by agents
or leased it to petty-bourgeois who, in their turn, sub-leased the land at high rents.
25 Francs-fileurs – literally rendered: “free absconder,” the nickname given to the Paris bourgeois who
fled from the city during the siege. The name carried brazen historical irony as a result of its
resemblance to the word “francs-tireurs” (“free sharpshooters”) – French guerrillas who actively
fought against the Prussians.
26 A city in Germany; during the French Revolution at the end of the 18th-century it was the centre
where the landlord monarchist emigrés made preparations for intervention against revolutionary
France. Coblenz was the seat of the emigré government headed by the rabid reactionary de Calonne, a
former minister of Louis XVI.

Jason Nelson
Jason Nelson

THE immediate occasion for publishing these outlines is the need of
placing in the bands of my hearers a guide to my professional lectures
upon the Philosophy of Right. Hitherto I have used as lectures that
portion of the Encyclopaedia of the Philosophic Sciences (1817) which deals
with this subject. The present work covers the same ground in a more
detailed and systematic way.
But now that these outlines are to be printed and given to the
general public, there is an opportunity of explaining points which in
lecturing would be commented on orally. Thus the notes are enlarged
in order to include cognate or conflicting ideas, further consequences
of the theory advocated, and the like. These expanded notes will, it is
hoped, throw light upon the more abstract substance of the text, and
present a more complete view of some of the ideas current in our
own time. Moreover, there is also subjoined, as far as was compatible
with the purpose of a compendium, a number of notes, ranging over
a still greater latitude. A compendium proper, like a science, has its
subject-matter accurately laid out. With the exception, possibly, of
one or two slight additions, its chief task is to arrange the essential
phases of its material. This material is regarded as fixed and known,
just as the form is assumed to be governed by well-ascertained rules.
A treatise in philosophy is usually not expected to be constructed on
such a pattern, perhaps because people suppose that a philosophical
product is a Penelope’s web which must be started anew every day.
This treatise differs from the ordinary compendium mainly in its
method of procedure. It must be understood at the outset that the
philosophic way of advancing from one matter to another, the
general speculative method, which is the only kind of scientific proof
available in philosophy, is essentially different from every other. Only
a clear insight into the necessity for this difference can snatch
philosophy out of the ignominious condition into which it has fallen
in our day. True, the logical rules, such as those of definition,
classification, and inference are now generally recognised to be
inadequate for speculative science. Perhaps it is nearer the mark to
say that the inadequacy of the rules has been felt rather than
recognised, because they have been counted as mere fetters, and
thrown aside to make room for free speech from the heart, fancy and
random intuition. But when reflection and relations of thought were
required, people unconsciously fell back upon the old-fashioned
method of inference and formal reasoning. In my Science of Logic I
have developed the nature of speculative science in detail. Hence in
this treatise an explanation of method will be added only here and

Jack Young
Jack Young

here. In a work which is concrete, and presents such a diversity of
phases, we may safely neglect to display at every turn the logical
process, and may take for granted an acquaintance with the scientific
procedure. Besides, it may readily be observed that the work as a
whole, and also the construction of the parts, rest upon the logical
spirit. From this standpoint, especially, is it that I would like this
treatise to be understood and judged. In such a work as this we are
dealing with a science, and in a science the matter must not be
separated from the form.
Some, who are thought to be taking a profound view, are heard to
say that everything turns upon the subject-matter, and that the form
may be ignored. The business of any writer, and especially of the
philosopher, is, as they say, to discover, utter, and diffuse truth and
adequate conceptions. In actual practice this business usually consists
in warming up and distributing on all sides the same old cabbage.
Perhaps the result of this operation may be to fashion and arouse the
feelings; though even this small merit may be regarded as superfluous,
for “they have Moses and the prophets: let them hear them.” Indeed,
we have great cause to be amazed at the pretentious tone of those
who take this view. They seem to suppose that up till now the
dissemination of truth throughout the world has been feeble. They
think that the warmed-up cabbage contains new truths, especially to
be laid to heart at the present time. And yet we see that what is on
one side announced as true, is driven out and swept away by the same
kind of worn-out truth. Out of this hurly-burly of opinions, that
which is neither new nor old, but permanent, cannot be rescued and
preserved except by science.
Further, as to rights, ethical life, and the state, the truth is as old as
that in which it is openly displayed and recognised, namely, the law,
morality, and religion. But as the thinking spirit is not satisfied with
possessing the truth in this simple way, it must conceive it, and thus
acquire a rational form for a content which is already rational
implicitly. In this way the substance is justified before the bar of free
thought. Free thought cannot be satisfied with what is given to it,
whether by the external positive authority of the state or human
agreement, or by the authority of internal feelings, the heart, and the
witness of the spirit, which coincides unquestioningly with the heart.
It is the nature of free thought rather to proceed out of its own self,
and hence to demand that it should know itself as thoroughly one
with truth.
The ingenuous mind adheres with simple conviction to the truth
which is publicly acknowledged. On this foundation it builds its
conduct and way of life. In opposition to this naive view of things

Andrew Cooper
Andrew Cooper

rises the supposed difficulty of detecting amidst the endless
differences of opinion anything of universal application. This trouble
may easily be supposed to spring from a spirit of earnest inquiry. But
in point of fact those who pride themselves upon the existence of
this obstacle are in the plight of him who cannot see the woods for
the trees. The confusion is all of their own making. Nay, more: this
confusion is an indication. that they are in fact not seeking for what is
universally valid in right and the ethical order. If they were at pains to
find that out, and refused to busy themselves with empty opinion and
minute detail, they would adhere to and act in accordance with
substantive right, namely the commands of the state and the claims of
society. But a further difficulty lies in the fact that man thinks, and
seeks freedom and a basis for conduct in thought. Divine as his right
to act in this way is, it becomes a wrong, when it takes the place of
thinking. Thought then regards itself as free only when it is conscious
of being at variance with what is generally recognised, and of setting
itself up as something original.
The idea that freedom of thought and mind is indicated only by
deviation from, or even hostility to what is everywhere recognised, is
most persistent with regard to the state. The essential task of a
philosophy of the state would thus seem to be the discovery and
publication of a new and original theory.
When we examine this idea and the way it is applied, we are
almost led to think that no state or constitution has ever existed, or
now exists. We are tempted to suppose that we must now begin and
keep on beginning afresh for ever. We are to fancy that the founding
of the social order has depended upon present devices and
discoveries. As to nature, philosophy, it is admitted, has to
understand it as it is. The philosophers’ stone must be concealed
somewhere, we say, in nature itself, as nature is in itself rational.
Knowledge must, therefore, examine, apprehend and conceive the
reason actually present in nature. Not with the superficial shapes and
accidents of nature, but with its eternal harmony, that is to say, its
inherent law and essence, knowledge has to cope. But the ethical
world or the state, which is in fact reason potently and permanently
actualised in self-consciousness, is not permitted to enjoy the
happiness of being reason at all.
Footnote: There are two kinds of laws, laws of nature and
laws of right. The laws of nature are simply there, and are
valid as they are. They cannot be gainsaid, although in certain
cases they may be transgressed. In order to know laws of
nature, we must get to work to ascertain them, for they are
true, and only our ideas of them can be false. Of these laws

Hunter Reyes
Hunter Reyes

he measure is outside of us. Our knowledge adds nothing to
them, and does not further their operation. Only our
knowledge of them expands. The knowledge of right is partly
of the same nature and partly different. The laws of right also
are simply there, and we have to become acquainted with
them. In this way the citizen has a more or less firm hold of
them as they are given to him, and the jurist also abides by
the same standpoint. But there is also a distinction. In
connection with the laws of right the spirit of investigation is
stirred up, and our attention is turned to the fact that the
laws, because they are different, are not absolute. Laws of
right are established and handed down by men. The inner
voice must necessarily collide or agree with them. Man
cannot be limited to what is presented to him, but maintains
that he has the standard of right within himself. He may be
subject to the necessity and force of external authority, but
not in the same way as he is to the necessity of nature; for
always his inner being says to him how a thing ought to be,
and within himself he finds the confirmation or lack of
confirmation of what is generally accepted. In nature the
highest truth is that a law is. In right a thing is not valid
because it is, since every one demands that it shall conform to
his standard. Hence arises a possible conflict between what is
and what ought to be, between absolute unchanging right and
the arbitrary decision of what ought to be right. Such division
and strife occur only on the soil of the spirit. Thus the unique
privilege of the spirit would appear to lead to discontent and
unhappiness, and frequently we are directed to nature in
contrast with the fluctuations of life. But it is exactly in the
opposition arising between absolute right, and that which the
arbitrary will seeks to make right, that the need lies of
knowing thoroughly what right is. Men must openly meet and
face their reason, and consider the rationality of right. This is
the subject-matter of our science in contrast with
jurisprudence, which often has to do merely with
contradictions. Moreover the world of today has an
imperative need to make this investigation. In ancient times,
respect and reverence for the law were universal. But now the
fashion of the time has taken another turn, and thought
confronts everything which has been approved. Theories
now set themselves in opposition to reality, and make as
though they were absolutely true and necessary. And there is
now more pressing need to know and conceive the thoughts

Adam Ramirez
Adam Ramirez

Hegel’s Philosophy of Right 5
upon right. Since thought has exalted itself as the essential
form, we must now be careful to apprehend right also as
thought. It would look as though the door were thrown open
for every casual opinion, when thought is thus made to
supervene upon right. But true thought of a thing is not an
opinion, but the conception of the thing itself. The
conception of the thing does not come to us by nature. Every
man has fingers, and may have brush and colours, but he is
not by reason of that a painter. So is it with thought. The
thought of right is not a thing which every man has at first
hand. True thinking is thorough acquaintance with the object.
Hence our knowledge must be scientific.
On the contrary, the spiritual universe is looked upon as
abandoned by God, and given over as a prey to accident and
chance. As in this way the divine is eliminated from the
ethical world, truth must be sought outside of it. And since at
the same time reason should and does belong to the ethical
world, truth, being divorced from reason, is reduced to a
mere speculation. Thus seems to arise the necessity and duty
of every thinker to pursue a career of his own. Not that he
needs to seek for the philosophers’ stone, since the
philosophising of our day has saved him the trouble, and
every would-be thinker is convinced that he possesses the
stone already without search. But these erratic pretensions
are, as it indeed happens, ridiculed by all who, whether they
are aware of it or not, are conditioned in their lives by the
state, and find their minds and wills satisfied in it. These, who
include the majority if not all, regard the occupation of
philosophers as a game, sometimes playful, sometimes
earnest, sometimes entertaining, sometimes dangerous, but
always as a mere game. Both this restless and frivolous
reflection and also this treatment accorded to it might safely
be left to take their own course, were it not that betwixt them
philosophy is brought into discredit and contempt. The most
cruel despite is done when every one is convinced of his
ability to pass judgment upon, and discard philosophy
without any special study. No such scorn is heaped upon any
other art or science.
In point of fact the pretentious utterances of recent philosophy
regarding the state have been enough to justify anyone who cared to
meddle with the question, in the conviction that he could prove
himself a philosopher by weaving a philosophy out of his own brain.
Notwithstanding this conviction, that which passes for philo

Colton Bennett
Colton Bennett

has openly announced that truth cannot be known. The truth with
regard to ethical ideals, the state, the government and the constitution
ascends, so it declares, out of each man’s heart, feeling and
enthusiasm. Such declarations have been poured especially into the
eager ears of the young. The words “God giveth truth to his chosen
in sleep” have been applied to science ; hence every sleeper has
numbered himself amongst the chosen. But what he deals with in
sleep is only the wares of sleep. Mr. Fries, one of the leaders of this
shallow-minded host of philosophers, on a public festive occasion,
now become celebrated, has not hesitated to give utterance to the
following notion of the state and constitution: “When a nation is
ruled by a common spirit, then from below, out of the people, will
come life sufficient for the discharge of all public business. Living
associations, united indissolubly by the holy bond of friendship, will
devote themselves to every side of national service, and every means
for educating the people.” This is the last degree of shallowness,
because in it science is looked upon as developing, not out of thought
or conception, but out of direct perception and random fancy. Now
the organic connection of the manifold branches of the social system
is the architectonic of the state’s rationality, and in this supreme
science of state architecture the strength of the whole, is made to
depend upon the harmony of all the clearly marked phases of public
life, and the stability of every pillar, arch, and buttress of the social
edifice. And yet the shallow doctrine, of which we have spoken
permits this elaborate structure to melt and lose itself in the brew and
stew of the “heart, friendship, and inspiration.” Epicurus, it is said,
believed that the world generally should be given over to each
individual’s opinions and whims and according to the view we are
criticising, the ethical fabric should be treated in the same way. By
this old wives’ decoction, which consists in founding upon the
feelings what has been for many centuries the labour of reason and
understanding, we no longer need the guidance of any ruling
conception of thought. On this point Goethe’s Mephistopheles, and the
poet is a good authority, has a remark, which I have already used
elsewhere:
“Verachte nur Verstand und Wissenschaft,
des Menschen allerhöchste Gaben -
So hast dem Teufel dich ergeben
und musst zu Grunde gehn.”
It is no surprise that the view just criticised should appear in the
form of piety. Where, indeed, has this whirlwind of impulse not
sought to justify itself? In godliness and the Bible it has imagined
itself able to find authority for despising order and law. And, in fact,

Mason Gutierrez
Mason Gutierrez

Hegel’s Philosophy of Right 7
it is piety of the sort which has reduced the whole organised system
of truth to elementary intuition and feeling. But piety of the right
kind leaves this obscure region, and comes out into the daylight,
where the idea unfolds and reveals itself. Out of its sanctuary it brings
a reverence for the law and truth which are absolute and exalted
above all subjective feeling.
The particular kind of evil consciousness developed by the wishywashy eloquence already alluded to, may be detected in the following
way. It is most unspiritual, when it speaks most of the spirit. It is the
most dead and leathern, when it talks of the scope of life. When it is
exhibiting the greatest self-seeking and vanity it has most on its
tongue the words “people” and “nation.” But its peculiar mark,
found on its very forehead, is its hatred of law.
Right and ethical principle, the actual world of right and ethical
life are apprehended in thought, and by thought are given definite,
general, and rational form, and this reasoned right finds expression in
law. But feeling, which seeks its own pleasure, and conscience, which
finds right in private conviction, regard the law as their most bitter
foe. The right, which takes the shape of law and duty, is by feeling
looked upon as a shackle or dead cold letter. In this law it does not
recognise itself and does not find itself free. Yet the law is the reason
of the object, and refuses to feeling the privilege of warming itself at
its private hearth. Hence the law, as we shall occasionally observe, is
the Shibboleth, by means of which are detected the false brethren and
friends of the so-called people.
Inasmuch as the purest charlatanism has won the name of
philosophy, and has succeeded in convincing the public that its
practices are philosophy, it has now become almost a disgrace to
speak in a philosophic way about the state. Nor can it be taken ill, if
honest men become impatient, when the subject is broached. Still less
is it a surprise that the government has at last turned its attention to
this false philosophising.
With us philosophy is not practised as a private art, as it was by
the Greeks, but has a public place, and should therefore be employed
only in the service of the state. The government has, up till now,
shown such confidence in the scholars in this department as to leave
the subject matter of philosophy wholly in their hands. Here and
there, perhaps, has been shown to this science not confidence - so
much as indifference, and professorships have been retained as a
matter of tradition. In France, as far as I am aware, the professional
teaching of metaphysics at least has fallen into desuetude. In any case
the confidence of the state has been ill requited by the teachers of
this subject. Or, if we prefer to see in the state not confidence, but

Robert Mitchell
Robert Mitchell

Hegel’s Philosophy of Right 9
Footnote: The same finds expression in a letter of Joh. v.
Müller (Works, Part VIII., p. 56), who, speaking of the
condition of Rome in the year 1803, when the city was under
French rule, writes, “A professor, asked how the public
academies were doing, answered, ‘On les tolère comme les
bordels!’” Similarly the so-called theory of reason or logic we
may still hear commended, perhaps under the belief that it is
too dry and unfruitful a science to claim any one’s attention,
or, if it be pursued here and there, that its formulae are
without content, and, though not of much good, can be of no
great harm. Hence the recommendation, so it is thought, if
useless, can do no injury.
These presumptuous utterances, which are in vogue in our time,
are, strange to say, in a measure justified by the shallowness of the
current philosophy. Yet, on the other hand, they have sprung from
the same root as that against which they so thanklessly direct their
attacks. Since that self-named philosophising has declared that to
know the truth is vain, it has reduced all matter of thought to the
same level, resembling in this way the despotism of the Roman
Empire, which equalised noble and slave, virtue and vice, honour and
dishonour, knowledge and ignorance. In such a view the conceptions
of truth and the laws of ethical life are simply opinions and subjective
convictions, and the most criminal principles, provided only that they
are convictions, are put on a level with these laws. Thus, too, any
paltry special object, be it never so flimsy, is given the same value as
au interest common to all thinking men and the bonds of the
established social world.
Hence it is for science a piece of good fortune that that kind of
philosophising, which might, like scholasticism, have continued to
spin its notions within itself, has been brought into contact with
reality. Indeed, such contact was, as we have said, inevitable. The real
world is in earnest with the principles of right and duty, and in the
full light of a consciousness of these principles it lives. With this
world of reality philosophic cob-web spinning has come into open
rupture. Now, as to genuine philosophy it is precisely its attitude to
reality which has been misapprehended. Philosophy is, as I have
already observed, an inquisition into the rational, and therefore the
apprehension of the real and present. Hence it cannot be the
exposition of a world beyond, which is merely a castle in the air,
having no existence except in the error of a one-sided and empty
formalism of thought. In the following treatise I have remarked that
even Plato’s Republic, now regarded as the bye-word for an empty
ideal, has grasped the essential nature of the ethical life of the Greeks.

Oliver Scott
Oliver Scott

Hegel’s Philosophy of Right 11
most liberal spirit in its attitude towards the endless mass of objects
and circumstances. By such a course science will escape the hate
which is visited upon a multitude of circumstances and institutions by
the vanity of a better knowledge. In this hate bitterness of mind finds
the greatest pleasure, as it can in no other way attain to a feeling of
self-esteem.
This treatise, in so far as it contains a political science, is nothing
more than an attempt to conceive of and present the state as in itself
rational. As a philosophic writing, it must be on its guard against
constructing a state as it ought to be. Philosophy cannot teach the state
what it should be, but only how it, the ethical universe, is to be known.
Ιδου Ποδοσ, ιδου και το πιδιµα
Hic Rhodus, hic saltus. [note]
To apprehend what is is the task of philosophy, because what is is
reason. As for the individual, every one is a son of his time; so
philosophy also is its time apprehended in thoughts. It is just as
foolish to fancy that any philosophy can transcend its present world,
as that an individual could leap out of his time or jump over Rhodes.
If a theory transgresses its time, and builds up a world as it ought to
be, it has an existence merely in the unstable element of opinion,
which gives room to every wandering fancy.
With little change the above, saying would read:
Here is the rose, here dance
The barrier which stands between reason, as self-conscious Spirit,
and reason as present reality, and does not permit spirit to find
satisfaction in reality, is some abstraction, which is not free to be
conceived. To recognise reason as the rose in the cross of the
present, and to find delight in it, is a rational insight which implies
reconciliation with reality. This reconciliation philosophy grants to
those who have felt the inward demand to conceive clearly, to
preserve subjective freedom while present in substantive reality, and
yet thought possessing this freedom to stand not upon the particular
and contingent, but upon what is and self-completed.
This also is the more concrete meaning of what was a moment
ago more abstractly called the unity of form and content. Form in its
most concrete significance is reason, as an intellectual apprehension
which conceives its object. Content, again, is reason as the
substantive essence of social order and nature. The conscious identity
of form and content is the philosophical idea.
It is a self-assertion, which does honour to man, to recognise
nothing in sentiment which is not justified by thought. This self-will
is a feature of modern times, being indeed the peculiar principle of

Gabriel Russell
Gabriel Russell

Hegel’s Philosophy of Right 15
independently, the second point is to look about for that
which corresponds to it in existing ideas and modes of
speech. But the way in which a conception exists in its truth,
and the way it presents itself in random ideas not only are but
must be different both in form and structure. If a notion is
not in its content false, the conception can be shown to be
contained in it and to be already there in its essential traits.
A notion [Vorstellung] may thus be raised to the form of a
conception [Begriff]. But so little is any notion the measure
and criterion of an independently necessary and true
conception, that it must accept truth from the conception, be
justified by it, and know itself through it. If the method of
knowing, which proceeds by formal definition, inference and
proof, has more or less disappeared, a worse one has come to
take its place. This new method maintains that ideas, as, e.g.,
the idea of right in all its aspects, are to be directly
apprehended as mere facts of consciousness, and that natural
feeling or that heightened form of it which is known as the
inspiration of one’s own breast, is the source of right. This
method may be the most convenient of all, but it is also the
most unphilosophic. Other features of this view, referring not
merely to knowledge but directly to action, need not detain us
here. While the first or formal method went so far as to
require in definition the form of the conception, and in proof
the form of a necessity of knowledge, the method of the
intuitive consciousness and feeling takes for its principle the
arbitrary contingent consciousness of the subject. In this
treatise we take for granted the scientific procedure of
philosophy, which has been set forth in the philosophic logic.
§ 3
Right is positive in general (a) in its form, since it has validity in a
state; and this established authority is the principle for the knowledge
of right. Hence we have the positive science of right. (b) On the side
of content this right receives a positive element [a] through the
particular character of a nation, the stage of its historical
development, and the interconnection of all the relations which are
necessitated by nature: [b] through the necessity that a system of
legalised right must contain the application of the universal
conception to objects and cases whose qualities are given externally.
Such an application is not the speculative thought or the
development of the conception, but a subsumption made by the
understanding: [c] through the ultimate nature of a decision which
has become a realit

Sebastian Hill
Sebastian Hill

Remark: Philosophy at least cannot recognise the authority
of feeling, inclination and caprice, when they are set in
opposition to positive right and the laws. It is an accident,
external to the nature of positive right, when force or tyranny
becomes an element of it. It will be shown later (§§211 - 214),
at what point right must become positive. The general phases
which are there deduced, are here only mentioned, in order to
indicate the limit of philosophic right, and also to forestall the
idea or indeed the demand that by a systematic development
of right should be produced a law-book, such as would be
needed by in actual state. To convert the differences between
right of nature and positive right, or those between
philosophic right and positive right, into open antagonism
would be a complete misunderstanding.
Natural right or philosophic right stands to positive right as
institutions to pandects. With regard to the historical element
in positive right, referred to in the paragraph, it may be said
that the true historical view and genuine philosophic
standpoint have been presented by Montesquieu. He regards
legislation and its specific traits not in an isolated and abstract
way, but rather as a dependent element of one totality,
connecting it with all the other elements which form the
character of a nation and an epoch. In this interrelation the
various elements receive their meaning and justification. The
purely historical treatment of the phases of right, as they
develop in time, and a comparison of their results with
existing relations of right have their own value; but they are
out of place in a philosophic treatise, except in so far as the
development out of historic grounds coincides with the
development out of the conception, and the historical
exposition and justification can be made to cover a
justification which is valid in itself and independently.
This distinction is as manifest as it is weighty. A phase of
right may be shown to rest upon and follow from the
circumstances and existing institutions of right, and yet may
be absolutely unreasonable and void of right. This is the case
in Roman law with many aspects of private right, which were
the logical results of its interpretation of paternal power and
of marriage. Further, if the aspects of right are really right and
reasonable, it is one thing to point out what with regard to
them can truly take place through the conception, and quite
another thing to portray the manner of their appearance in
history, along with the circumstances, cases, wants and

James Robinson
James Robinson

Hegel’s Philosophy of Right 17
events, which they have called forth. Such a demonstration
and deduction from nearer or more remote historic causes,
which is the occupation of pragmatic history, is frequently
called exposition, or preferably conception, under the opinion
that in such an indication of the historic elements is found all
that is essential to a conception of law and institutions of
right. In point of fact that which is truly essential, the
conception of the matter, has not been so much as
mentioned. So also we are accustomed to hear of Roman or
German conceptions of right, and of conceptions of right as
they are laid down in this or that statute-book, when indeed
nothing about conceptions can be found in them, but only
general phases of right, propositions derived from the
understanding, general maxims, and laws.
By neglect of the distinction, just alluded to, the true
standpoint is obscured and the question of a valid
justification is shifted into a justification based upon
circumstances; results are founded on presuppositions, which
in themselves are of little value; and in general the relative is
put in place of the absolute, and external appearance in place
of the nature of the thing. When the historical vindication
substitutes the external origin for the origin from the
conception, it unconsciously does the opposite of what it
intends. Suppose that an institution, originating under definite
circumstances, is shown to be necessary and to answer its
purpose, and that it accomplishes all that is required of it by
the historical standpoint. When such a proof is made to stand
for a justification of the thing itself, it follows that, when the
circumstances are removed, the institution has lost its
meaning and its right. When, e.g., it is sought to support and
defend cloisters on the grounds that they have served to clear
and people the wilderness and by teaching and transcribing to
preserve scholarship, it follows that just in so far as the
circumstances are changed, cloisters have become aimless and
superfluous.
In so far as the historic significance, or the historical
exposition and interpretation of the origin of anything is in
different spheres at home with the philosophic view of the
origin and conception of the thing one might tolerate the
other. But, in illustration of the fact that they neither here nor
in science, preserve this peaceful attitude, I quote from Mr.
Hugo’s Textbook of the History of Roman Law. In this work Mr.
Hugo says (5th edition §53) that “Cicero praises the twelve

Angel Morgan
Angel Morgan

Hegel’s Philosophy of Right 19
law Caecilius adduces the good argument that by it trust and
credit were more firmly secured, and also that, by reason of
the very horror of the law, it never had to be enforced. Not
only does he in his want of thought fail to observe that by the
severity of the law that very intention of securing trust and
credit was defeated, but lie forthwith himself gives an
illustration of the way in which the disproportionate
punishment caused the law to be inoperative, namely through
the habit of giving false witness. But the remark of Mr. Hugo
that, Phavorinus bad not understood the law is not to be
passed over. Now any schoolboy can understand the law just
quoted, and better than anyone else would Shylock have
understood what was to him of such advantage. Hence, by
“understand" Mr. Hugo must mean that form of
understanding which consists in bringing to the support of a
law a good reason. Another failure to understand, asserted by
Caecilius of Phavorinus, a philosopher at any rate may
without blushing acknowledge: jumentum, which without any
arcera was the only legal way to bring a sick man into court as
a witness, was held to mean not only t horse but also a
carriage or wagon. Further on in this raw Caecilius found
more evidence of the excellence and accuracy of the old
statutes, which for the purpose of non-suiting a sick man at
court distinguished not only between a horse and a wagon,
but also, as Caecilius explains, between a wagon covered and
cushioned and one not so comfortably equipped. Thus one
would have the choice between utter severity on one side,
and on the other senseless details. But to exhibit fully the
absurdity of these laws and the pedantic defence offered in
their behalf would give rise to an invincible repugnance to all
scholarship of that kind.
But in his manual Mr. Hugo speaks also of rationality in
(connection with Roman law, and I have been struck with the
following remarks. He first of all treats of the epoch
extending from the origin of the Republic to the twelve tables
(§§38, 39), noticing that in Rome people had many wants, and
were compelled in their labour to use draught animals and
beasts of burden, as we ourselves do, and that the ground was
an alternation of hill and valley that the city was set upon a
hill, etc. These statements might, perhaps, have answered to
the sense of Montesquieu’s thought, though in them it would
be well-nigh impossible to find his genius. But after these
preliminary paragraphs, he goes on to say in §40, that the

Aiden Robinson
Aiden Robinson

system of right is the kingdom of actualised freedom. It is the world
of spirit, which is produced out of itself, and is a second nature.
Addition: Freedom of will is best explained by reference to
physical nature. Freedom is a fundamental phase of will, as
weight is of bodies. When it is said that matter is heavy, it
might be meant that the predicate is an attribute; but such is
not the case, for in matter there is nothing which has not
weight; in fact, matter is weight. That which is heavy
constitutes the body, and is the body. Just so is it with
freedom and the will; that which is free is the will. Will
without freedom is an empty word, and freedom becomes
actual only as will, as subject. A remark may also be made as
to the connection of willing and thinking. Spirit, in general, is
thought, and by thought man is distinguished from the
animal. But we must not imagine that man is on one side
thinking and on another side willing, as though he had will in
one pocket and thought in another. Such an idea is vain. The
distinction between thought and will is only that between a
theoretical and a practical relation. They are not two separate
faculties. The will is a special way of thinking; it is thought
translating itself into reality; it is the impulse of thought to
give itself reality. The distinction between thought and will
may be expressed in this way. When I think an object, I make
of it a thought, and take from it the sensible. Thus I make of
it something which is essentially and directly mine. Only in
thought am I self-contained. Conception is the penetration of
the object, which is then no longer opposed to me. From it I
have taken its own peculiar nature, which it had as an
independent object in opposition to me. As Adam said to
Eve, “thou art flesh of my flesh and bone of my bone," so
says the spirit, “This object is spirit of my spirit, and all
alienation has disappeared.” Any idea is a universalising, and
this process belongs to thinking. To make something
universal is to think. The “I” is thought and the universal.
When I say “I,” I let fall all particularity of character, natural
endowment, knowledge, age. The I is empty, a point and
simple, but in its simplicity active. The gaily coloured world is
before me ; I stand opposed to it, and in this relation I cancel
and transcend the opposition, and make the content my own.
The I is at home in the world, when it knows it, and still
more when it has conceived it.
So much for the theoretical relation. The practical, on the
other hand, begins with thinking, with the I itself. It thus

Jonathan Adams
Jonathan Adams

Hegel’s Philosophy of Right 23
only in connection with the whole. The ground principles of
the premises that spirit is in the first instance intelligence, and
that the phases, through which it passes in its development,
namely from feeling, through imaginative thinking to
thought, are the way by which it produces itself as will, which,
in turn, as the practical spirit in general, is the most direct
truth of intelligence - I have presented in my Encyclopaedia of
the Philosophical Sciences (1817), and hope some day to be able
to give of them a more complete exposition. There is, to my
mind, so much the more need for me to give my contribution
to, as I hope, the more thorough knowledge of the nature of
spirit, since, as I have there said, it would be difficult to find a
philosophic science in a more neglected and evil plight than is
that theory of spirit, which is commonly called psychology.
Some elements of the conception of will, resulting from the
premises enumerated above are mentioned in this and the
following paragraphs. As to these, appeal may moreover be
made to every individual to see them in his own selfconsciousness. Everyone will, in the first place, find in
himself the ability to abstract himself from all that he is, and
in this way prove himself able of himself to set every content
within himself, and thus have in his own consciousness an
illustration of all the subsequent phases.
§ 5
The will contains [a] the element of pure indeterminateness, i.e.,
the pure doubling of the I back in thought upon itself. In this process
every limit or content, present though it be directly by way of nature,
as in want, appetite or impulse, or given in any specific way, is
dissolved. Thus we have the limitless infinitude of absolute
abstraction, or universality, the pure thought of itself.
Remark: Those who treat thinking and willing as two special
peculiar and separate faculties, and, further, look upon
thought as detrimental to the will, especially the good will,
show from the very start that they know nothing of the
nature of willing, a remark which we shall be called upon to a
number of times upon the same attitude of mind. The will on
one side is the possibility of abstraction from every aspect in
which the I finds itself or has set itself up. It reckons any
content as a limit, and flees from it. This is one of the forms
of the self-direction of the will, and is by imaginative thinking
insisted upon as of itself freedom. It is the negative side of
the will, or freedom as apprehended by the understanding.

Kayden Brooks
Kayden Brooks

This freedom is that of the void, which his taken actual
shape, and is stirred to passion. It, while remaining purely
theoretical, appears in Hindu religion as the fanaticism of
pure contemplation; but becoming actual it assumes both in
politics and religion the form of a fanaticism, which would
destroy the established social order, remove all individuals
suspected of desiring any kind of order, and demolish any
organisation which then sought to rise out of the ruins only
in devastation does the negative will feel that it has reality. It
intends, indeed, to bring to pass some positive social
condition, such as universal equality or universal religious life.
But in fact it does not will the positive reality of any such
condition, since that would carry in its train a system, and
introduce a separation by way of institutions and between
individuals. But classification and objective system attain self
consciousness only by destroying negative freedom. Negative
freedom is actuated by a mere solitary idea, whose realisation
is nothing but the fury of desolation.
Addition: This phase of will implies that I break loose from
everything, give up all ends, and bury myself in abstraction. It
is man alone who can let go everything, even life. He can
commit suicide, an act impossible for the animal, which
always remains only negative, abiding in a state foreign to
itself, to which it must merely get accustomed. Man is pure
thought of himself, and only in thinking has he the power to
give himself universality and distinguish in himself all that is
particular and definite.
Negative freedom, or freedom of the understanding, is onesided, yet as this one-sidedness contains an essential feature,
it is not to be discarded. But the defect of the understanding
is that it exalts its one-sidedness to the sole highest place.
This form of freedom frequently occurs in history. By the
Hindus, e.g., the highest freedom is declared to be persistence
in the consciousness of one’s simple identity with himself, to
abide in the empty space of one’s own inner being, like the
colourless light of pure intuition, and to renounce every
activity of life, every purpose and every idea. In this way man
becomes Brahma; there is no longer any distinction between
finite man and Brahma, every difference having been
swallowed up in this universality. A more concrete
manifestation of this freedom is fanaticism of political and
religious life. Of this nature was the terrible epoch of the
French Revolution, by which all distinctions in talent and

Jose Butler
Jose Butler

Hegel’s Philosophy of Right 25
authority were to have been superseded. In this time of
upheaval and commotion any specific thing was intolerable.
Fanaticism wills an abstraction and not an articulate
association. It finds all distinctions antagonistic to its
indefiniteness, and supersedes them. Hence in the French
Revolution the people abolished the institutions which they
themselves had set up, since every institution is inimical to
the abstract self-consciousness of equality.
§ 6
[b] The I is also the transition from blank indefiniteness to the
distinct and definite establishment of a definite content and object,
whether this content be given by nature or produced out of the
conception of spirit. Through this establishment of itself as a definite
thing the I becomes a reality. This is the absolute element of the
finitude or specialisation of the I.
Remark: This second element in the characterisation of the
I is just as negative as the first, since it annuls and replaces
the first abstract negativity. As the particular is contained in
the universal, so this second phase is contained already in the
first, and is only an establishing of what the first is implicitly.
The first phase, if taken independently, is not the true
infinitude, i.e., the concrete universal, or the conception, but
limited and one-sided. In that it is the abstraction from all
definite character, it has a definite character. Its abstract and
one-sided nature constitutes its definite character, its defect
and finitude.
The distinct characterisation of these two phases of the I is
found in the philosophy of Fichte as also in that of Kant.
Only, in the exposition of Fichte the I, when taken as
unlimited, as it is in the first proposition of his
Wissenschaftslehre, is merely positive. It is the universality and
identity made by the understanding. Hence this abstract I is
in its independence to be taken as the truth, to which by way
of mere addition comes in the second proposition, the
limitation, or the negative in general, whether it be in the
form of a given external limit or of an activity of the I. To
apprehend the negative as immanent in the universal or selfidentical, and also as in the I, was the next step, which
speculative philosophy had to make. Of this want they have
no presentiment, who like Fichte never apprehend that the
infinite and finite are, if separated, abstract, and must be seen
as immanent one in the other

Anthony Wood
Anthony Wood

Addition: This second element makes its appearance as the
opposite of the first ; it is to be understood in its general
form: it belongs to freedom but does not constitute the
whole of it. Here the I passes over from blank
indeterminateness to the distinct establishment of a specific
character as a content or object. I do not will merely, but I
will something. Such a will, as is analysed in the preceding
paragraph, wills only the abstract universal, and therefore
wills nothing. Hence it is not a will. The particular thing,
which the will wills is a limitation, since the will, in order to
be a will, must in general limit itself. Limit or negation
consists in the will willing something Particularising is thus as
a rule named finitude. Ordinary reflection holds the first
element, that of the indefinite, for the absolute and higher.
and the limited for a mere negation of this indefiniteness. But
this indefiniteness is itself only a negation, in contrast with
the definite and finite. The I is solitude and absolute negation.
The indefinite will is thus quite as much one-sided as the will,
which continues merely in the definite.
§ 7
[c] The will is the unity of these two elements. It is particularity
turned back within itself and thus led back to universality; it is
individuality; it is the self-direction of the I. Thus at one and the same
time it establishes itself as its own negation, that is to say, as definite
and limited, and it also abides by itself, in its self-identity and
universality, and in this position remains purely self-enclosed. The I
determines itself in so far as it is the reference of negativity to itself ;
and yet in this self-reference it is indifferent to its own definite
character. This it knows as its own, that is, as an ideal or a mere
possibility, by which it is not bound, but rather exists in it merely
because it establishes itself there. This is the freedom of the will,
constituting its conception or substantive reality. It is its gravity, as it
were, just as gravity is the substantive reality of a body.
Remark: Every self-consciousness knows itself as at once
universal, or the possibility of abstracting itself from
everything definite, and as particular, with a fixed object,
content or aim. These two elements, however, are only
abstractions. The concrete and true, and all that is true is
concrete, is the universality, to which the particular is at first
opposed, but, when it has been turned back into itself, is in
the end made equal. This unity is individuality, but it is not a
simple unit as is the individuality of imaginative thought, but

Caleb Martinez
Caleb Martinez

a unit in terms of the conception (Encyclopaedia of the
Philosophical Sciences, §§112-114). In other words, this
individuality is properly nothing else than the conception.
The first two elements of the will, that it can abstract itself
from everything, and that it is definite through either its own
activity or something else, are easily admitted and
comprehended, because in their separation they are untrue,
and characteristic of the mere understanding. But into the
third, the true and speculative - and all truth, as far as it is
conceived, must be thought speculatively - the understanding
declines to venture, always calling the conception the
inconceivable. The proof and more detailed explanation of
this inmost reserve of speculation, of infinitude as the
negativity which refers itself to itself, and of this ultimate
source of all activity, life and consciousness, belong to logic,
as the purely speculative philosophy. Here it can be noticed
only in passing that, in the sentences, “The will is universal. …
The will directs itself,” the will is already regarded as
presupposed subject or substratum; but it is not something
finished and universal before it determines itself, nor yet
before this determination is superseded and idealised. It is
will only when its activity is self-occasioned, and it has
returned into itself.
Addition: What we properly call will contains the two
above-mentioned elements. The I is, first of all, as such, pure
activity, the universal which is by itself. Next this universal
determines itself, and so far is no longer by itself, but
establishes itself as another, and ceases to be the universal.
The third step is that the will, while in this limitation, i.e., in
this other, is by itself. While it limits itself, it yet remains with
itself, and does not lose its hold of the universal. This is, then,
the concrete conception of freedom, while the other two
elements have been thoroughly abstract and one-sided. But
this concrete freedom we already have in the form of
perception, as in friendship and love. Here a man is not onesided, but limits himself willingly in reference to another, and
yet in this limitation knows himself as himself. In this
determination he does not feel himself determined, but in the
contemplation of the other as another has the feeling of
himself. Freedom also lies neither in indeterminateness nor in
determinateness, but in both. The wilful man has a will which
limits itself wholly to a particular object, and if he has not this
will, he supposes himself not to be free. But the will is not

Ryan Collins
Ryan Collins

bound to a particular object, but must go further, for the
nature of the will is not to be one-sided and confined. Free
will consists in willing a definite object, but in so doing to be
by itself and to return again into the universal.
§ 8
If we define this particularising ([b] §6) further, we reach a
distinction in the forms of the will. (a) In so far as the definite
character of the will consists in the formal opposition of the
subjective to the objective or external direct existence, we have the
formal will as a self consciousness which finds an outer world before
it. The process by which individuality turns back in its definiteness
into itself, is the translation of the subjective end, through the
intervention of an activity and a means, into objectivity. In the
absolute spirit, in which all definite character is thoroughly its own
and true (Encyclopaedia. §440), consciousness is only one side, namely,
the manifestation or appearance of the will, a phase which does not
require detailed consideration here.
Addition: The consideration of the definite nature of the will
belongs to the understanding, and is not in the first instance
speculative. The will as a whole, not only in the sense of its
content, but also in the sense of its form, is determined.
Determinate character on the side of form is the end, and the
execution of the end. The end is at first merely something
internal to me and subjective, but it is to be also objective and
to cast away the defect of mere subjectivity. It may be asked,
why it has this defect. When that which is deficient does not
at the same time transcend its defect, the defect is for it not a
defect at all. The animal is to us defective, but not for itself.
The end, in so far as it is at first merely ours, is for us a
defect, since freedom and will are for us the unity of
subjective and objective. The end must also be established as
objective; but does not in that way attain a new one-sided
character, but rather its realisation.
§ 9
(b). In so far as the definite phases of will are its own peculiar
property or its particularisation turned back into itself, they are
content. This content, as content of the will, is for it, by virtue of the
form given in (a), an end, which exists on its inner or subjective side
as the imaginative will, but by the operation of the activity, which
converts

Elijah Cook
Elijah Cook

The will, which is at first only implicitly free, is the direct or
natural will. The distinctive phases, which the self-determining
conception sets up in the will, appear in the direct will, as a directly
present content. They are impulses, appetites, inclinations, by which
the will finds itself determined by nature. Now this content, with all
its attendant phases, proceeds from the rationality of the will, and is
therefore implicitly rational; but let loose in its immediate directness it
has not as yet the form of rationality. The content is indeed for me
and my own, but the form and the content are yet different. The will
is thus in itself finite.
Note. Empirical psychology enumerates and describes these
impulses and inclinations, and the wants which are based
upon them. It takes, or imagines that it takes this material
from experience, and then seeks to classify it in the usual way.
It will be stated below, what the objective side of impulse is,
and what impulse is in its truth, apart from the form of
irrationality which it has as an impulse, and also what shape it
assumes when it reaches existence.
Addition: Impulse, appetite, inclination are possessed by the
animal also, but it has not will; it must obey impulse, if there
is no external obstacle. Man, however, is the completely
undetermined, and stands above impulse, and may fix and set
it up as his. Impulse is in nature, but it depends on my will
whether I establish it in the I. Nor can the will be
unconditionally called to this action by the fact that the
impulse lies in nature.
§ 12
The system of this content, as it occurs directly in the will, exists
only as a multitude or multiplicity of impulses, every one of which is
mine in a general way along with others, but is at the same time
universal and undetermined, having many objects and ways of
satisfaction. The will, by giving itself in this two-fold indefiniteness
the form of individuality (§7), resolves, and only as resolving is it
actual.
Remark: Instead of to “resolve” (beschließen), i.e. to
supersede the indefinite condition in which a content is
merely possible, our language has the expression “unfold
itself” (sich entschließen). The indeterminate condition of the
will, as neutral but infinitely fruitful germ of all existence,
contains within itself its definite character and ends, and
brings them forth solely out of itself.

Luke Watson
Luke Watson

By resolution, will fixes itself as the will of a definite individual,
and as thereby distinguishing itself from another. However apart
from this finite character which it has as consciousness (§8), the
immediate will is in virtue of the distinction between its form and its
content formal. Hence its resolution as such is abstract, and its
content is not yet the content and work of its freedom.
Remark: To the intelligence, as thinking, the object or
content remains universal ; the intelligence retains the form
merely of a universal activity. Now the universal signifies in
will that which is mine, i.e. it is individuality. And yet, also,
the direct and formal will is abstract ; its individuality is not
yet filled with its free universality. Hence at the beginning the
peculiar finitude of the intelligence is in will, and only by
exalting itself again to thought and giving itself intrinsic
universality does the will transcend the distinction of form
and content and make itself objective infinite will. It is
therefore a misunderstanding of the nature of thought and
will to suppose that in the will man is infinite, while in
thought and even in reason he is limited. In so far as thought
and will are still distinct, the reverse is rather the case, and
thinking reason, when it becomes will, assigns itself to
finitude.
Addition: A will which resolves nothing, is not an actual will;
that which is devoid of definite character never reaches a
volition. The reason for hesitation may lie in a sensitiveness,
which is aware that in determining itself it is engaged with
what is finite, is assigning itself a limit, and abandoning its
infinity ; it may thus hold to its decision not to renounce the
totality which it intends. Such a feeling is dead, even when it
aims to be something beautiful. “Who will be great,” says
Goethe, “must be able to limit himself." By volition alone
man enters actuality, however distasteful it may be to him; for
indolence will not desert its own self-brooding, in which it
clings to a universal possibility. But possibility is not yet
actuality. Hence the will, which is secure simply of itself, does
not as yet lose itself in any definite reality.
§ 14
The finite will, which has merely from the standpoint of form
doubled itself back upon itself, and has become the infinite and selfsecluded I (§5), stands above its content of different impulses and
also above the several ways by which they are realised and satisfied.

Bentley Cooper
Bentley Cooper

Why lad

Julian Lewis
Julian Lewis

too late. i’m already redpilling normies on the fact that israel rapes kids for blackmail purposes.

Ryan Carter
Ryan Carter

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Ryder Roberts
Ryder Roberts

bug ipad, lid’s got

Chase Edwards
Chase Edwards

i don't listen to anything other than City Pop

youtube.com/watch?v=ed05KYjlJdM&t=520s

Benjamin Perez
Benjamin Perez

2 kinds of tech:
1. iphones
2. bigger things, known all as ipads (eg “my fave ipad is the tesla”)

Aiden Morales
Aiden Morales

well i can’t load that. mobile internet.

Connor Bailey
Connor Bailey

big*

Luis Thomas
Luis Thomas

so, how did the night’s prostitute killing and cannibalizing go, lads? surely the fog was sufficient for all

William Morris
William Morris

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Jose Walker
Jose Walker

it was too hot tbh

Ayden Hughes
Ayden Hughes

ree normies get out

Benjamin Smith
Benjamin Smith

brexit is scheduled for halloween.

Daniel Bailey
Daniel Bailey

Punitive bollocks busting from Queen Patel

wtf I love the tories now

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Ryder Green
Ryder Green

Using reee is normie boomer tier tbh

Joshua Clark
Joshua Clark

all hail Israel tbh

Jordan Fisher
Jordan Fisher

roo NORPs begone

what's the deal with priti patel?
she's not priti
and she's not a patel

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Asher Campbell
Asher Campbell

Lel
twitter.com/howroute/status/1153377677836980224

Christian Moore
Christian Moore

Attached: Ruthless.webm (5.4 MB, 720x404)

Benjamin Jenkins
Benjamin Jenkins

great webm to start the day

Jayden Ward
Jayden Ward

shitskins are just not compatible with civilised society. when is the wilfully-ignorant general public going to stop shielding these savages from criticism?

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James Gonzalez
James Gonzalez

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Angel Williams
Angel Williams

ffs

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Jackson Scott
Jackson Scott

Looks like a Russian soldier just got it

Matthew Lopez
Matthew Lopez

Britain will likely be among the European nations to suffer the highest temperatures in next week's heatwave
ROOOOOOOOOO IF WE'D BREXITED ALREADY THEN WE COULD HAVE AVOIDED THIS
FUCKING CONTINENTALS AND THEIR SHITTY WEATHER SHOWING UP UNINVITED IN ARE GREEN AND PLEASANT LAND

Sebastian Jenkins
Sebastian Jenkins

Critics now believe these high-powered meetings in Israel signalled her ambition to one day become prime minister.

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Hunter Cox
Hunter Cox

Undoubtedly

Andrew Diaz
Andrew Diaz

Keep your friends close but your enemies close
Boris will ruin Patel

Asher Rivera
Asher Rivera

Closer

Mason Nguyen
Mason Nguyen

Britain's far right is embodied by a Ugandan muslim who is devoted to Britain's most famous Neo-Liberal PM

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Evan Edwards
Evan Edwards

Had to stop watching at 0.25
Was that a knife?

Jose Richardson
Jose Richardson

33°C
11am
Off to bed tbh

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Christopher Davis
Christopher Davis

Its going to reach 39C in London

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Tyler Nelson
Tyler Nelson

try to have a 1v1 fistfight with some troublemakers so they'll go away
they gang up on you and murder you
net benefit tbh

yes lad, he got stabbed and killed

Bentley Robinson
Bentley Robinson

Real boomer hours.

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Adam Powell
Adam Powell

What is usury? For added points factor in the cost of living and the current average earnings.

Noah Brown
Noah Brown

yes lad, he got stabbed and killed
Bloody hell why would anyone post that kind of shit.

Jordan Morgan
Jordan Morgan

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Hunter Torres
Hunter Torres

this is one issue that I'll always side with the boomers on tbh. 99% of the people whingeing about student debt are ones who did useless memi degrees that would never ever lead to a job

Aaron Evans
Aaron Evans

Oh I forgot what a bunch of miserable bastards hang out here.

Anthony Morales
Anthony Morales

(1)

Samuel Adams
Samuel Adams

(3)

Dylan Flores
Dylan Flores

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Luis Roberts
Luis Roberts

So warm Im going to shave off all my body hair with clippers tbh

Kayden Hughes
Kayden Hughes

On phone at work lad. Post source or a mp4 la

Jonathan Garcia
Jonathan Garcia

Boris going all in on 5G

I knew Brexit was worth it.

Cooper Barnes
Cooper Barnes

Oh yeah there's definitely a lot of stupid cunts who went for stupid degrees, but you're forgetting that all these people went through a culture where EVERYONE AND EVERYTHING was telling them to go to uni.
Back when I was in school I just wanted to do film, but EVERY teacher etc was going "you should go to uni", the press was going "you should go to uni", the pollies were going "you should go to uni", there was a concerted effort to get young people to go to uni.

Isaiah Evans
Isaiah Evans

Fucking hell imagine your mum forcing you to fight people who’re mean to her on twitter while she brags about you and your mates willy’s

mobile.twitter.com/KayBurley/status/1154292149053218817

Julian Fisher
Julian Fisher

Keek
women

Leo Brown
Leo Brown

mummy no I don’t want to fight gammon from twitter anymore ;_;

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Luis Richardson
Luis Richardson

thiccy patel

Parker Parker
Parker Parker

It's just what you do….when you dont know what else to do.

Easton King
Easton King

errr, why did she post the aubergine emoji? that's the dick emoji

Levi Reyes
Levi Reyes

there was a concerted effort to get young people to go to uni.
that's true tbh I fell for the uni memi too

tbh lad

Isaiah Hill
Isaiah Hill

This isnt a gore board. Things are bad enough without having to be reminded of the constant evil in the world

Daniel Russell
Daniel Russell

There you go lad, I know lads who went for non-memi degrees and are still in the shitter, a couple of them finally got jobs in their field but were then made redundant last month.

Connor Perry
Connor Perry

Phryne was the original e-thot

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Christian Fisher
Christian Fisher

I want to see it ;-;
Post mp4

Cameron Perez
Cameron Perez

‘If others have rifles, we’ll have rifles’: why US leftist groups are taking up arms
Armed antifascists groups say they want to protect events from malicious and potentially armed groups – an increasingly common phenomenon
theguardian.com/us-news/2019/jul/22/if-others-have-rifles-well-have-rifles-why-leftist-groups-are-taking-up-arms
I love how it has taken them this fucking l o n g to realise having huns is a good thing.

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Lucas Rogers
Lucas Rogers

Tfw still have not paid off my student loan and I got a STEM degree

Gabriel Sanchez
Gabriel Sanchez

twitch is run by poofters

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Ethan Fisher
Ethan Fisher

having huns is a good thing
Smh lad

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Isaiah Cox
Isaiah Cox

keeeeeek

Ayden Bennett
Ayden Bennett

considering all the tranny fag pride emote shit they have there not a surprise tbh

Caleb James
Caleb James

This tbh
Go to uni and get an ology, doesn’t matter which one or you’ll be poor. Any ology will land you a career for lyfe
goes to uni leaving with debt and no career prospects
”unis” rub hands and laugh
We need a return to polytechnics and 50% of so called universities and their fake degrees need shutting down

Joshua Ross
Joshua Ross

ISN'T THAT THE SAME FUCKING PICTURE FROM 2017 THAT THEY'VE BEEN USING ALL THE TIME SINCE

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Isaac Long
Isaac Long

twitter.com/search?q=Kay%20Burley&src=tren

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William Martin
William Martin

"my little gammon basher will take you bigots down!🍆🍆🍆🍆😜😜😜"

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Sebastian Richardson
Sebastian Richardson

Why does she need her sons to get vilent?
She’s a right ‘orrible cunt

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Connor Martin
Connor Martin

If you need someone else to fight your battles, you shouldn't be trying to start battles.

Eli Morales
Eli Morales

mummy help the gammon are 6’2

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Brandon Sanders
Brandon Sanders

milf tbf

Colton Parker
Colton Parker

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Jason Morgan
Jason Morgan

as far as I'm aware she is having an affair with someone at twitch maybe more then one person hence the immunity

Chase Martin
Chase Martin

mummy will never ask you to beat up people who disagreed with her online

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Blake Robinson
Blake Robinson

twitter.com/BBCNews/status/1154222483895128064

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Jaxon Bailey
Jaxon Bailey

either that or her orbiters work at twitch

Xavier Perry
Xavier Perry

He looks like a poof. Would snap him in two using my 24ft 3” gammon sons

Jason Nelson
Jason Nelson

Lad he never asked for this

Jack Rivera
Jack Rivera

tbh as a manlet i spent my youf taking down the bigger lads lanklets dont know how to fight because no one messed with them when they were kids

Zachary Cruz
Zachary Cruz

Facebook admitting it interfered in the Ireland abortion referendum campaign

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Brody Rivera
Brody Rivera

Smashed untold numbers of manlets

Nathaniel Sullivan
Nathaniel Sullivan

u fink ur ard? cam on den

Owen Anderson
Owen Anderson

Boz vs Jezza
LIVE

Parker Morales
Parker Morales

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Lincoln Carter
Lincoln Carter

Unbelievable the shell game they are playing in front of our eyes, to obscure who holds responsibility between these govt institutes and private enterprise, whilst both are acting in concert towards same "progressive" goals.
The neolib hydra has many heads indeed.

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Bentley Rivera
Bentley Rivera

twitter.com/griptmedia/status/1151533809751527424
"it's bad that pro-lifers were allowed to advertise on this platform! but it's perfectly fine for pro-choicers to advertise on every single platform!"
"it's a private company they can do what they want!"

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Easton Bailey
Easton Bailey

Ice Cream no.2

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Jeremiah Jones
Jeremiah Jones

stop ingesting sugar

Chase Baker
Chase Baker

Oy vey! Muh Gulf
finance to protec Israel

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Grayson Butler
Grayson Butler

Caroline Lucas..BOOOOOOO

flashback to midsommer nights dream I had last night where Green MPs where doing a witchcraft ritual. Damn this heat.

Bentley Nelson
Bentley Nelson

can barely speak
gets elected

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Landon Miller
Landon Miller

oh
the
fucking
irony

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Cameron Long
Cameron Long

mental totty spotted

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Gavin Brooks
Gavin Brooks

based nonce hunter thot

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Christian Stewart
Christian Stewart

Bojo's hard right ethnically diverse cabinet feels high energy so far.

Matthew Bell
Matthew Bell

they are all Indians lad basically English

Cooper Mitchell
Cooper Mitchell

phwoooar

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Leo Taylor
Leo Taylor

Tbh DUDE is doing a great job responding to questions from the other side

Adrian Morris
Adrian Morris

Why the fuck won't anything load?
502 cloudflair errors on all vids and most pics.

Camden Reed
Camden Reed

Watch out lads! FBPE is on its way to stop bigot Boris!

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Sebastian Butler
Sebastian Butler

NUCLEAR RENAISSANCE

Justin Sanchez
Justin Sanchez

Gonna go buy a fan

Kevin Richardson
Kevin Richardson

Just reload the page lad.

Elijah Perry
Elijah Perry

mine don't feel like they are doing anything tbh

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Anthony Young
Anthony Young

Tried everything. Must just be me.

Isaac Wood
Isaac Wood

Based can wait for hot air being blown into my face
No images are loading for me either

Jaxson James
Jaxson James

got the big fan down from the loft
placed it a foot away from me on full blast
okay this is kino

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Christian Adams
Christian Adams

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Jeremiah Russell
Jeremiah Russell

twitter.com/JamesCleverly/status/1154347293677461504

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William Gomez
William Gomez

Just reached 30 degrees

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Charles Cruz
Charles Cruz

It's been 36 here for hours.

Joshua Cruz
Joshua Cruz

Im going to the shops for a cornetto

Elijah Brooks
Elijah Brooks

Jeff Shartlet

Aaron Peterson
Aaron Peterson

very good lad

Camden White
Camden White

Centrism is unironically BASED tbh lads

Evan Anderson
Evan Anderson

Poor lad wants to join the army

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Jeremiah Gutierrez
Jeremiah Gutierrez

Cringe.

Fucking hate yankoids

Elijah Gray
Elijah Gray

WE CAN REBUILD HIM

Levi Rivera
Levi Rivera

Rank hypocrisy of globetrotting Extinction Rebellion jet setter's lifestyle after she shed 'crocodile tears' over climate protest that stopped son seeing his dying dad
Miss Jones flaunts her ecologically unsound jet-setting on social media, uploading snaps of herself skiing, posing at the iconic Victoria Falls in Zambia, and in apparent skydiving kit at an airfield.
Other exotic locations enjoyed by the fancy-free English literature graduate from Shrewsbury include a trip to Egypt and a bungee jump over the Nile, a safari in Uganda, holidays in Namibia, France and New Zealand.
Emphasising her soft spot for environment-damaging travel on Twitter, she wrote: 'Impromptu trip to Paris… YES PLEASE'.
dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7280851/Rank-hypocrisy-globetrotting-Extinction-Rebellion-jet-setters-lifestyle-luxury-holidays.html
archive.fo/ZLn9M

Aaron Kelly
Aaron Kelly

The Six Million Dollar Jew

Blake Morgan
Blake Morgan

check

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Christian Thomas
Christian Thomas

wooooooooow whooooo wooooould haaaaave gueeeeeesed sheeeee waaaaaas aaaaaa biiiiiiitch

Gavin Martin
Gavin Martin

she comes from three generations of climate protestors
Oh. Just like Greta Thumbelinaberg then

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James Martin
James Martin

In social media posts she has described herself as 'all human rightsy', but admitted that her brain had been 'pickled in alcohol' at Leeds University.

Ban university right now. Slavery for all thots right now

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Angel White
Angel White

it's a fucking tickbox, they are always the fucking same
working man missed his father's final moments cos some rich cunt wanted to rub herself off

Ryan Clark
Ryan Clark

tfw called out the crocodile tears days before the press did

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Lincoln Price
Lincoln Price

am lernin greek lads

Jeremiah Harris
Jeremiah Harris

good lad

Jaxon Thompson
Jaxon Thompson

twitter.com/mollyfprince/status/1154039284950716419

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Carson Baker
Carson Baker

Remember 7 months ago Belgium’s government collapsed thanks to a right wing riot?

Bentley Ross
Bentley Ross

Just

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Lincoln Brown
Lincoln Brown

Shud lern inglish ferst
t. Bazza

Dominic Perry
Dominic Perry

a weakened military works in our favour lad

Isaiah Barnes
Isaiah Barnes

Are you suggesting they're not Bri'ish?

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Kayden Williams
Kayden Williams

Are you forgetting the white elites crimes against the people?

Isaiah Allen
Isaiah Allen

Holy shit. Remember when Dr. Who was good?

Aiden Rogers
Aiden Rogers

no :^)

Cameron Adams
Cameron Adams

Tbh, thought that was a picture of Javid or one of his brothers, they all look the same and all look like Sontarans

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Luis Gonzalez
Luis Gonzalez

The other inmate who was questioned about Epstein’s injury (Nicholas Tartaglione) is an ex-cop convicted of quadruple homicide.

Holy shit they are trying to whack him cos he knows too much

Matthew Jones
Matthew Jones

K&G full documentary of the Pyrrhic war

Chase Harris
Chase Harris

They do.

I legit forgot about the potato headed dudes so thanks for reminding me :)

Brody Martinez
Brody Martinez

the wrong type of paki nigger

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Nathaniel Campbell
Nathaniel Campbell

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Landon Gutierrez
Landon Gutierrez

got the fan and i am eating a freeze pop rn

Nicholas Gray
Nicholas Gray

"Racism" just means not putting the interests of minorities first.
It doesnt matter how many brown faces they populate the cabinet with, unless they are agitating for religious and racial special interest groups these people will never be satisfied.

Brandon Butler
Brandon Butler

ran out of beer
going to have to go out to get more
pray for me lads

mirror.co.uk/lifestyle/health/women-warned-not-put-ice-18773113

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Colton Watson
Colton Watson

Dad just told me someone had committed insurance fraud against him.

Sebastian Watson
Sebastian Watson

They need to be warned against doing that

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Jose Russell
Jose Russell

this

Owen Sanchez
Owen Sanchez

BATTLE BUDDY GRAB THE AMMO THE JAPS ARE ON THE RIDGE

Nathaniel Jenkins
Nathaniel Jenkins

Imagine the nerve damage they've done to themselves from doing that.

Gabriel Davis
Gabriel Davis

Over the last few months, females have also been urged not to put garlic, parsley, bath bombs and cucumbers inside their vaginas.
the absolute STATE of women

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Daniel Hill
Daniel Hill

does kay burley fuck her son or something

Michael Ortiz
Michael Ortiz

Going for some after toil

IN THREE FUCKING HOURS

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Jack Murphy
Jack Murphy

She's still on trending lmao

Caleb Ortiz
Caleb Ortiz

the country is melting
Kay's comments are more talked about than that

l m a o

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Noah Russell
Noah Russell

meanwhile in the yorkshire regiment

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Brayden Cruz
Brayden Cruz

pull my pigtails

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Camden Bailey
Camden Bailey

this wog pandering is getting really tiring.

Lincoln Gomez
Lincoln Gomez

Most of the historical regiments have been destroyed when they restructured the army a couple of decades ago.

Levi Jenkins
Levi Jenkins

It's virtue signalling and pathological narcissism, not one of the people advocating it actually care about their pet ethnics.

Jordan King
Jordan King

tolerating four welsh/irishmen in your ranks

Anthony Jackson
Anthony Jackson

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Justin Evans
Justin Evans

smh lad, people from yorkshire might be a little bit "different" but it's not fair to call them wogs

Daniel Wilson
Daniel Wilson

Which wouldn't be a problem if they weren't being put into positions of power to better serve against the native population.

Connor Howard
Connor Howard

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Chase Torres
Chase Torres

tfw soldiers don't look aesthetic anymore with all their big baggy gear, plate carrier and camo
smh

Colton Perry
Colton Perry

tfw buildings don't looke aesthetic anymore with all their glass, concrete, and steel
Works for every modern thing tbh

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Adrian Harris
Adrian Harris

raccoon stuck on fence lads

streamable.com/srr79

Brayden Morgan
Brayden Morgan

Boris Johnson backs amnesty for up to 500,000 undocumented migrants
Corbyn says he is ‘worried that Johnson overestimates himself’ as Johnson gives first statement to MPs
theguardian.com/politics/live/2019/jul/25/boris-johnson-new-cabinet-prime-minister-chairs-first-cabinet-as-critics-say-party-now-fully-taken-over-by-hard-right-live-news

Jace Butler
Jace Butler

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Nathaniel Russell
Nathaniel Russell

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Jacob Young
Jacob Young

keek that poor lad has given up

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Ryan Butler
Ryan Butler

jej

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Angel Mitchell
Angel Mitchell

Even they can't escape the poor diet in America.

Asher Thompson
Asher Thompson

Why don’t you shoot it in the face or bat it off the fence with your baseball bat?

Caleb Taylor
Caleb Taylor

I see this long legged mack daddy everywhere

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Isaiah Torres
Isaiah Torres

streamable.com/

Daniel Sanders
Daniel Sanders

Gradually I began to hate them

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James Wood
James Wood

you will notice the raccoon is in what’s supposed to be the recycling bin.

Lucas Bennett
Lucas Bennett

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Noah Price
Noah Price

streamable.com/dnq0r
meant to post this, he would not get off the fence

Caleb Williams
Caleb Williams

Sounds like you've got a cold there lad, should free him

Andrew Hall
Andrew Hall

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Owen Watson
Owen Watson

Did you actually move that thing or did you just poke it in the arse.

Cooper Nguyen
Cooper Nguyen

why not push him off

Oliver Bailey
Oliver Bailey

rape it

Grayson Ramirez
Grayson Ramirez

Fuck him the arse with that stick you’re waving and he’ll be off like a shot

Robert Martinez
Robert Martinez

I think he might be dying or something smdh, mummy told me to get rid of him :(

Brody Price
Brody Price

brb going to see if he decided to move from where I cut the fence off

Thomas Cox
Thomas Cox

Holy fuck is this photo taken in Skipton? Looks like the Rose and Crwon in the background

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Hudson Scott
Hudson Scott

Barbecue the little fucker and feed it to her

Brayden Roberts
Brayden Roberts

ineffectually rattling the fence
put a thick glove on and scruff him lad

FILM IT

Landon Johnson
Landon Johnson

all that big talk about trash pandas

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Logan Allen
Logan Allen

it’s fake, lass. that’s alias work.

Lincoln Brown
Lincoln Brown

Yeah

Jackson Baker
Jackson Baker

they were here first, it’s not right smdh

Daniel Price
Daniel Price

Knew I recognised that bridge, just round the corner from the Narrowboat.

Alexander Evans
Alexander Evans

boris johnson wasted no time disappointing the global audience by denouncing violence, and b r not a single weapon or suicide vest to his meeting with the queen.

Michael Smith
Michael Smith

*bringing

Dominic Collins
Dominic Collins

why not just pick it up with your hands?

Julian Price
Julian Price

oh you know Scottish things. do you know about pictish deities, particularly the one for which the river Tay is named?

James Ramirez
James Ramirez

Veganism is self-imposed AIDS at this point.

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Jonathan Bailey
Jonathan Bailey

they will bite and scratch at you.

austinpug.org/4-common-infectious-diseases-spread-by-raccoons/

Nathaniel Sullivan
Nathaniel Sullivan

I think he has rabies tbf he got off the fence but is just laying on the ground, I think it is dying or something. gave him some tendies but he did not eat them

Brody Ward
Brody Ward

aids is out of date. it’s now all about homo syphilis.

Zachary Long
Zachary Long

time to send him to the big bin in the sky lad

Joshua Garcia
Joshua Garcia

Fucking stomp on its head until it expires

Adam Thomas
Adam Thomas

Just fuck off
dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7219539/Historian-claims-Catholic-church-covered-early-Christian-artwork-women-priests-bishops.html

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Sebastian Cruz
Sebastian Cruz

there should unironically be a board for the people who are called schiz. it would be way more active than this one.

Jace Reed
Jace Reed

Tatha ? no sorry

John Kelly
John Kelly

yeah wish I could just put him out of his misery, guess I should just smash him with an axe or something. but that seems too incel for me

Alexander Rivera
Alexander Rivera

Call him a coon and see what he does

James Johnson
James Johnson

fake accounts, pushing the gaslight alias work:

Julian Cooper
Julian Cooper

straight-up fucking lies

Jackson Lopez
Jackson Lopez

you have a shotgun don't you?

Charles Butler
Charles Butler

triggered

Benjamin White
Benjamin White

< here
< effortposting

Evan Rivera
Evan Rivera

Drag him behind your car, reverse and you're done.

Levi Wood
Levi Wood

drop a boulder on his noggin if you're too nervy to bash him with a hammer

Easton Clark
Easton Clark

I cannot just shoot my gun in my mummy's backyard unfortunately despite the menes

Dominic Bennett
Dominic Bennett

👌

Jason Torres
Jason Torres

Why not, if you gave a .22 I doubt even your neighbour will hear the shot?

Ethan Campbell
Ethan Campbell

Im just going to let him eat his tendies and die in the comfy shade

Luke Jones
Luke Jones

all this work to invigorate the obviously lifless alias. tut tut, yer lazy mi6

Juan Turner
Juan Turner

fair enough lad, wouldn't want to risk rabies

it's a shame tbh
gave him some tendies
good lad

Owen Ramirez
Owen Ramirez

lol no way lad I would definately go to jail for any firearms discharging right now

Wyatt Lopez
Wyatt Lopez

Disappointed you didnt lasso him

Anthony Sullivan
Anthony Sullivan

These fucking spastics

transtifa flag

twitter.com/Reuters/status/1154343032302366724

Brody Clark
Brody Clark

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Christopher Hill
Christopher Hill

bit shit tbh.

Jonathan Watson
Jonathan Watson

But muh freedoms

Ethan Scott
Ethan Scott

burgerican gun menes are mostly menes unless you have alot of land, even then sometimes faggy neighbors will call on you

Ryder Johnson
Ryder Johnson

put it in a bag then release it in walmart

Cameron Hill
Cameron Hill

shame you can't shoot them for trespassing when they come to complain.

Angel Garcia
Angel Garcia

Think this fucking jock tranny schizo should be banned tbh

Cameron Stewart
Cameron Stewart

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Aaron Campbell
Aaron Campbell

alas, the mi6 fuk is a namefag. o well, they are talented suk-ups.

Benjamin Johnson
Benjamin Johnson

just filter it lad

Charles Thompson
Charles Thompson

Macron gambles on cultural shift with bill allowing IVF for lesbians
yellow vest dispersed tbh

Henry White
Henry White

i wish white people would begin a culture of intellectual pursuit outside of pecuniary and competitive (“technic”) confines. these would be a people rich in heart, and, against the will of the fag world, apart from the ways of nigs. yet we find instead all groups of whites in hot pursuit of nigger standards of being.

Lucas Cruz
Lucas Cruz

madlad and schizo are separate people
unless 🤔

William Anderson
William Anderson

he ate the tendies I think they healed him

Blake Reed
Blake Reed

good lad now give him some monster zero to drink

Chase Gray
Chase Gray

Her point is backed by Dr. Sara Parks, who teaches New Testament at the University of Nottingham, who explained The Daily Best that the presence of women in leadership roles in early Christianity was of the influence of Judaism.

L M A O

Gabriel Flores
Gabriel Flores

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John Rogers
John Rogers

I don't have any of that stuff smdh only coffee, look like he ran off

Levi Fisher
Levi Fisher

"these women in leadership roles in the Christian church were influenced by Judaism"
"so these "women in leadership roles" were influenced by the antithesis to Christianity"

Lucas James
Lucas James

women desperately look for historical evidence to try and counter Timothy 2
the only evidence is that when women have worked against Christianity
I was going to joke and call the academic a kike but I don't even fucking have to.

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Cameron Taylor
Cameron Taylor

probably just tired from hanging on the fence
good job you didnt bash his brains in

Angel Brooks
Angel Brooks

But the truth of this formal universality, which taken by itself is
undetermined and finds definite character in externally given material,
is the self-directing universality which is will or freedom. Since the
will has as its object, content and end, universality itself, and thus
assumes the form of the infinite, it is free not only in itself or
implicitly, but for itself or explicitly. It is the true idea.
Remark: The self-consciousness of the will in the form of
appetite or impulse is sensible, the sensible in general
indicating the externality of self-consciousness, or that
condition in which self-consciousness is outside of itself.
Now this sensible side is one of the two elements of the
reflecting will, and the other is the abstract universality of
thought. But the absolute will has as its object the will itself
as such in its pure universality. In this universality the
directness of the natural will is superseded, and so also is the
private individuality which is produced by reflection and
infects the natural condition. But to supersede these and lift
them into the universal, constitutes the activity of thought.
Thus the self-consciousness, which purifies its object, content
or end, and exalts it to universality, is thought carrying itself
through into will. It is at this point that it becomes clear that
the will is true and free only as thinking intelligence. The
slave knows not his essence, his infinitude, his freedom; he
does not know himself in his essence, and not to know
himself is not to think himself. The self-consciousness, which
by thought apprehends that itself is essence, and thus puts
away from itself the accidental and untrue, constitutes the
principle of right, morality, and all forms of ethical life. They
who, in speaking philosophically of right, morality, and
ethical life, would exclude thought and turn to feeling, the
heart, the breast, and inspiration, express the deepest
contempt for thought and science. And science itself,
overwhelmed with despair and utter insipidity, makes
barbarism and absence of thought a principle, and so far as in
it lay robbed men of all truth, dignity, and worth.
Addition: In philosophy truth is had when the conception
corresponds to reality. A body is the reality, and soul is the
conception. Soul and body should be adequate to each other.
A dead man is still an existence, but no longer a true
existence; it is a reality void of conception. For that reason
the dead body decays. So with the true will; that which it

Justin Rivera
Justin Rivera

NO DEAL SCOTLAND EXIT FROM UK. No deal Scot exit. Tell Scotland get Boris out with no confidence vote.

Juan Torres
Juan Torres

There's a spammer in the thread again
Smh, what attracts them?

Luke Wood
Luke Wood

NO DEAL SCOTLAND EXIT FROM UK. No deal Scot exit. Tell Scotland get Boris out with no confidence vote.

Nathaniel Allen
Nathaniel Allen

autism, F5 I've already cleared it

Jace Walker
Jace Walker

still going

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Nolan Mitchell
Nolan Mitchell

Money launderer, 67, who tried to buy a knighthood is convicted in his absence of £10million Jewish charities scam after going on the run
Edward Cohen, 67, of Stamford Hill, London, set up a 'bewildering' network of companies to launder money through. He fled the country before his trial and spent £4,800 trying to buy a knighthood.
dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7174919/Money-launderer-67-convicted-10million-Jewish-charities-scam-going-run.html

Ryder Sullivan
Ryder Sullivan

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Noah Green
Noah Green

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Attached: 21.jpg (164.15 KB, 1200x1169)

Grayson Thompson
Grayson Thompson

the conservatives are acting out of fear of being ousted by trotskyites (labour) or civnats (bp) rather than on principle. they can barely mask their hate for the working class brexiteers.

Jeremiah Taylor
Jeremiah Taylor

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Austin Reyes
Austin Reyes

"journalism" in the current year

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Luis Cruz
Luis Cruz

36°C

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Henry Jones
Henry Jones

The Catholic Church has some cultural left overs from the Roman pagan Vestal Virgin priestesses that was on the site of what is St Peter's today therefore the Catholic Church had Women priests

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Ryder Price
Ryder Price

why the fuck does it even need to be said

lad the whole thing can be discredited with one paragraph in their own article promoting it

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Dominic Gonzalez
Dominic Gonzalez

Smoked one of my cuban cigars tbh it was nice

Connor Watson
Connor Watson

Are you Kramer? Smdh

Daniel Lopez
Daniel Lopez

dont know what that means

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Owen Taylor
Owen Taylor

building demolished
hmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm

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Christian White
Christian White

In Seinfeld, Kramer gets a box of Cuban cigars and smokes them

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Nicholas Brown
Nicholas Brown

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Michael Cox
Michael Cox

What's this?

Joseph Cruz
Joseph Cruz

Lad, I just watched all the most recent drone videos, it's still there

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Aiden Butler
Aiden Butler

Epstein's Island, large pic is the drone footage, other one is Google Maps.

Justin Watson
Justin Watson

normies have terrible taste

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Daniel Ortiz
Daniel Ortiz

SA getting fooled by photoshops on twitter because he hasn't been watching the videos themselves
Smdh

Landon Miller
Landon Miller

Twister
Not God tier

Dominic Stewart
Dominic Stewart

Jubbly earned its place there though tbf

Jordan Cooper
Jordan Cooper

Tbh, sturdiest of the lollies tbh

James Cook
James Cook

no choc ices
no tip tops
smh zoomers

Sebastian Lewis
Sebastian Lewis

the replies
twitter.com/LondonStreets3/status/1153413765771223040
twitter.com/LondonStreets3/status/1153414506980282368

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Camden Reed
Camden Reed

Doesnt even have the original cornetto on it either what a shite poop list

Jack Gonzalez
Jack Gonzalez

feasts are overrated the chocolate in the middle is crap which defeats the point

Jason Anderson
Jason Anderson

yeah you don't freeze dairy like that, it turns it into shit

Dylan Rogers
Dylan Rogers

the "British Dream"
FUCK OFF WITH THESE AMERICANISMS

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Julian Morris
Julian Morris

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Thomas Lewis
Thomas Lewis

Vote NatSoc or Communism.

Justin Kelly
Justin Kelly

Gotta go for a camera up my bum next week lads. Kinda scared tbh.

Brayden Rivera
Brayden Rivera

If anything is trouble it will likely be the capitalists who are responsible.

Luke Powell
Luke Powell

twitter.com/search?q=Feast&src=tren
twitter.com/UKMoments/status/1154417054306512896

Elijah Robinson
Elijah Robinson

Bit of a weird fetish lad

Eli Torres
Eli Torres

don't worry lad you'll barely know it's there

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Aaron Hill
Aaron Hill

endoscopic sniffotron

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Camden Morales
Camden Morales

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Kevin Jenkins
Kevin Jenkins

I've had an endoscope before tbh, they drug you up enough but it gets uncomfortable when they go around corners

Gabriel Bailey
Gabriel Bailey

It’s “only” a sigmoidoscopy. I have the choice of having sedation or not, I’m leaning towards not so I can drive straight away.

Not looking forward to the nurse giving me an enema.

Nolan Williams
Nolan Williams

yeah there's a tricky chicane just past the gonad

Julian Martin
Julian Martin

She offering to get gay with her 6 inch long son and his mates?

Parker Harris
Parker Harris

Just so you know, it'll be 20 inches deep

Easton Hill
Easton Hill

aubergine emoji in a tweet about her son
Wtf

Oliver Wilson
Oliver Wilson

twitter.com/search?q=kay burley&src=tren
dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7285677/Sky-News-Kay-Burley-mocked-badly-placed-aubergine-emoji-tweet.html

David Murphy
David Murphy

no mumsnet battle arena where sons are pitted against each other to win cash and mummy's love

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Wyatt Moore
Wyatt Moore

My penishead pepe son

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Jackson Long
Jackson Long

convicted of laundering more than £10million, made from the illegal sale of sex pills, through a Jewish charities scam.
Edward Cohen, 67, set up a ‘bewildering’ network of companies, some of them promoting Orthodox Judaism and ‘helping the Jewish poor’.
son David told jurors his signature had been forged on charity documents and insisted he had no idea what his crooked father was up to.
He said: ‘If I had known that my father was involved in any sort of dirty money I would have run a mile. I would not have not asked for his help, no way Jose.

‘The companies were simply vehicles. Either the Revenue was told these companies were dormant or they made no returns.’
He hid the vast sums from the taxman by lying on returns and misleading the charities watchdog.
Mr Dawes said the assortment of charities and businesses brought in an average of around £1.7million a year between 2008 and 2011.
‘In 2012 there is an enormous jump to £8million,’ he explained.
‘You may think that something happened in those two years, 2012 to 13 and 2013 to 14, to give these companies a huge boost in income.
‘In total, £18.7 million was received by these companies.
‘The investigators discovered two distinct sources of money which make up this £18.7 million,’ said Mr Dawes.
>The second source of money was from 'unlawful, illegal sales of medication online', according to Mr Dawes.
He said: ‘The vast majority of them are bought abroad in either France, Austria, Germany or Spain.
’These drugs are Viagra, types of Viagra, slimming pills, pills that apparently stop smoking and a number of prescription drugs.
The prosecutor explained that these payments would go through merchant accounts that are commonly connected to online shops.
‘£10million from online pills goes into these merchant accounts.
‘This is criminal money and they sent it and changed it elsewhere. That £10.27million was then sent to a variety of different destinations.’
He said cash was laundered through foreign exchange companies and cheque cashing firms, then sent abroad to countries included Cyprus, Hong Kong, Panama, China and America.
‘Effectively, what we are seeing here, you may think, is money laundering on a gigantic scale.’
son David Cohen, of Golders Green, north London, denied but was convicted of failing to notify a change in circumstances when obtaining benefits.
He was acquitted of becoming concerned in criminal property, acquiring criminal property, theft and of supplying false information to the Charity Commission.

Wewwwwwwww

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Jason Jackson
Jason Jackson

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William Wilson
William Wilson

How do these jews get away with it?

Hunter Bailey
Hunter Bailey

Keeek, that's my filename for that image

Andrew Robinson
Andrew Robinson

letting a paki doctor sedate you then stick something up your bum
Bit gay

Luke Morris
Luke Morris

I know its a good one

Daniel Phillips
Daniel Phillips

It’s not a paki lad, don’t be silly I’m not poor, this isn’t being done on the NHS.

Parker Hernandez
Parker Hernandez

I'm gonna go out on a limb here and say that'd be too much weight on his shoulders. I mean look at him, he doesn't look too handy does he? You can tell he'd be disarmed if it came to close quarters fist fighting. Call me limp-wristed, but I just don't think I'd feel comfortable with my life in the hands of a guy like that - he doesn't look like he'd give the job all the elbow-grease it requires.

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Samuel Myers
Samuel Myers

But does he have mates?

Gabriel Gutierrez
Gabriel Gutierrez

does that mean you get an executive producer credit on the kino they make in your arse?

Brayden Rivera
Brayden Rivera

Mine was a nice lass tbf

Benjamin Hall
Benjamin Hall

yeah and you shouldn't mess with them

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Zachary Barnes
Zachary Barnes

Every.single.time

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Landon Jones
Landon Jones

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Asher Kelly
Asher Kelly

I’m worried the nurse giving me the enema will be a QT and I’ll sprout a chub.

Caleb Butler
Caleb Butler

Kutner
Sure is a lot of Jews…
He’s a fraudster. Ordered a Ferrari in Frank Lampard’s name and flipped it making 80k
Claimed it was a mistake when Frank and Ferrari went mad
dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2315531/Frank-Lampard-agent-riddle-250k-Ferrari-bought-using-stars-name.html

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Colton Brooks
Colton Brooks

Best tape your aubergine to your leg then. Or leave it at home in the freezer

Brayden Carter
Brayden Carter

twitter.com/JReenoir/status/1154158787412078598

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Luke Sanders
Luke Sanders

context

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Anthony Ward
Anthony Ward

The uncivil wars gon be immense

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Jayden Sanders
Jayden Sanders

police don’t show up
NO GO ZONES ARE A RACIST MYTH

Anthony Collins
Anthony Collins

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Caleb Butler
Caleb Butler

what’s the background did he die?

Aaron Bennett
Aaron Bennett

dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7285747/Identity-teen-rapist-17-brutally-attacked-murdered-schoolgirl-14-revealed.html

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Josiah Hall
Josiah Hall

He looks like a kike tbh

Jonathan Thomas
Jonathan Thomas

Fuck Arab scum. Wish whites could do that in their streets tho

Brandon Flores
Brandon Flores

he is iirc

Nicholas Diaz
Nicholas Diaz

trying to hide it with an oirish name
gets away with ragging protected paki class
Must be

Ayden Bailey
Ayden Bailey

bunch of dagos tbf

Luke Reed
Luke Reed

why are kids allowed online?

Kevin Mitchell
Kevin Mitchell

Clueless/modern/bad parents.

Josiah Foster
Josiah Foster

timesofisrael.com/liveblog_entry/boris-johnson-volunteered-in-a-galilee-kibbutz-in-the-1980s-kibbutz-leader-says/

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Colton Stewart
Colton Stewart

Based

Dominic Thomas
Dominic Thomas

looks like raccoonlad fully healed and left the battlefield

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Michael Gonzalez
Michael Gonzalez

jesus christ it's fucking endless
twitter.com/CNN/status/1154316894528319488

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Tyler Ward
Tyler Ward

bugs taste shite, I ate a cricket before and it was shite. why the hell are they pushing bug eating like we are 6 stone Ethiopian skeletals

Brayden Sullivan
Brayden Sullivan

Brings a tear to my eye lads : ')

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Aaron Garcia
Aaron Garcia

shut up bigot, don't ask questions, do as you are told

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Jacob Campbell
Jacob Campbell

because leftists worship the planet and all things material, so they will go to all lengths to "save" the planet, even though we aren't the ones having 20 gorrilion children (thanks to them)

Cooper Fisher
Cooper Fisher

Ahhhhh….niggering

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Oliver Hernandez
Oliver Hernandez

smdh in one article they say we need more shitskins to increase the pop then in the next they say we have too many. smdh they need to have less

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Dylan Davis
Dylan Davis

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Landon Peterson
Landon Peterson

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Anthony Morales
Anthony Morales

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Caleb Cox
Caleb Cox

Back from the gym lads.

Luke Hall
Luke Hall

the tranny who got a salon shut down for refusing to wax his balls has been found with child pornography and evidence showing him sexually soliciting an underage girl
thepostmillennial.com/exclusive-jessica-yaniv-accused-of-trying-to-share-child-porn-sexual-harassment-of-minors/

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John Rodriguez
John Rodriguez

good lad

Cameron Ward
Cameron Ward

DaleksGamertag

Diagnosed with autism only last August

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Adrian Martin
Adrian Martin

Because pastoral land can be developed and depriving the white man of meat will further the soyim agenda.

Dominic Morris
Dominic Morris

100% fake:

Julian Bell
Julian Bell

they completely fucked this up

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Ethan Smith
Ethan Smith

big pink jew who lives in the woods btfo

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Hudson Bennett
Hudson Bennett

as if this can make us feel anything

John Jones
John Jones

it's actually uncanny and at times the bad CGI really stands out, like the first time they wrestle

Hudson Russell
Hudson Russell

Fresh Morgoth

youtu.be/CFkA-1Ozw_8

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Easton Cox
Easton Cox

what is it? kine is for human garbage.

Bentley Hill
Bentley Hill

see

Xavier Flores
Xavier Flores

why the fuck is it set in the middle of the day

Christopher Cox
Christopher Cox

cba to fix it

fuk off, nigger

Connor Kelly
Connor Kelly

Lad are you drunk or has the heat melted your brain?

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Austin Bennett
Austin Bennett

cba 2 fix it

Jordan Russell
Jordan Russell

Mornin' lads it's too fucking hot

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James Gonzalez
James Gonzalez

keeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeek

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Carson Sanchez
Carson Sanchez

so bored of keto smh

Anthony Thompson
Anthony Thompson

Pissbabies

It's all projection with these people.

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Kayden Baker
Kayden Baker

is that not a parody site?

Gabriel Wright
Gabriel Wright

tbh

Lincoln Jenkins
Lincoln Jenkins

firebomb it all.

Jaxson Lewis
Jaxson Lewis

Firebombing Newport like

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Elijah Foster
Elijah Foster

Hope someone nukes Hollywood

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Noah Lewis
Noah Lewis

Bojo is PM

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Luke Cooper
Luke Cooper

balls are getting nuked tonight

Jaxon Jackson
Jaxon Jackson

keeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeek what the actual FUG

Cooper King
Cooper King

londoners
disgosteng

Nicholas Murphy
Nicholas Murphy

98% of bouncers are absolute cunts

Adam Allen
Adam Allen

Nine months for insulting globohomo

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John Reed
John Reed

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Jose Wilson
Jose Wilson

Here goes Judas…

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Kayden Watson
Kayden Watson

Bit late for that m8

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Hunter James
Hunter James

are they real sikh tbh, weak beards

Dylan Wilson
Dylan Wilson

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Lucas Carter
Lucas Carter

reading roald dahl's autobiography tbh. lad had a mental life

Jack Stewart
Jack Stewart

They're like everything in America a false imitation.

Adam Morris
Adam Morris

the big boi

Gabriel Lewis
Gabriel Lewis

hair has a real significance for sikhs, theirs just doesn't look right

Ayden Howard
Ayden Howard

another Norwegian who larped as welsh

Asher Garcia
Asher Garcia

22 plagiarised even that smh

Ryder Reed
Ryder Reed

Looks a bit like my Norwegian granddad tbh

James Collins
James Collins

can’t onto tellingly difference smh

Carson Parker
Carson Parker

Soy Sikhs tbh

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David Taylor
David Taylor

false … imitation …

Jace Howard
Jace Howard

2019
cutting hair

Sebastian Cook
Sebastian Cook

anyone ever tell you that flag is a yank power outlet?

Benjamin Kelly
Benjamin Kelly

hullo schizo

Carson Brooks
Carson Brooks

nah, pretty sure i’m only A schiz, not THE schiz. disappointed tbh

Eli Anderson
Eli Anderson

based and aryanpilled

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Brody Lopez
Brody Lopez

Zero sympathy nowadays

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Liam Fisher
Liam Fisher

wew

Joseph Torres
Joseph Torres

how do you drown when you have a lifevest? And someone taking a pic of you?

Austin Perry
Austin Perry

niggers look like floating poos tbh

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Adam Torres
Adam Torres

There’s photos proving that all these pics are staged and the water depth they are in doesn’t exceed a couple of foot

Henry Cruz
Henry Cruz

all men again

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Joshua Taylor
Joshua Taylor

spent time with family today
now I got no me time before it's time to recharge for tomorrow's toil
great

Aiden Mitchell
Aiden Mitchell

In that pic you can see where a ship has been not too long ago, just behind the one pictured

Tyler Flores
Tyler Flores

have you tried eating your poop?

Jordan Ramirez
Jordan Ramirez

all this salt

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Anthony King
Anthony King

Will they ever get over the scouser self shoah?

Jayden Foster
Jayden Foster

LE EBIN BORIS REALLY WINDS UP THOSE LEFTIES LUV DIS SALT ME

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Ryan Cooper
Ryan Cooper

they didn't even give them facial expressions
they just stare at each other
lmao

Josiah Hall
Josiah Hall

Even the animal films from the 00s where they just moved the mouths are better. Bring back Garfield '04.

Zachary Long
Zachary Long

Based, is he a new Rainbow Six Siege character?

Josiah Perry
Josiah Perry

don't even need animation for a talking animal movie

Chase White
Chase White

twitter.com/meaglemp/status/1154377452636037120

Meanwhile Corbyn’s rally in Parliament Square calling for another general election….

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Asher Cox
Asher Cox

But the nigger in yellow behind the boat is stood up in the sea that niggers 4meters away are drowning in

Wyatt Peterson
Wyatt Peterson

honestly lads i think the worst part about dating apps is i get to read what women think about themselves

Daniel Price
Daniel Price

get tom gaywood off my screen lad

Jonathan Ward
Jonathan Ward

scared you might have to crack one out?

Christian Edwards
Christian Edwards

lad this is a nofap board

Josiah Russell
Josiah Russell

only person here who nofaps is SA because he gets his stimulation direct to his prostate

Nolan Sanders
Nolan Sanders

behead those who insult nofap

Lucas Thompson
Lucas Thompson

rare SA

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Jaxson Watson
Jaxson Watson

he doesn't know that after 1 year of nofap your stand awakens

Lucas Miller
Lucas Miller

lad after a few days nopoo I can see the future

Hudson Davis
Hudson Davis

what is a stand

Liam Rogers
Liam Rogers

Magical powers in the manga/anime Jojo

Anthony Jones
Anthony Jones

22st is in the thread

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Charles Clark
Charles Clark

If you fast forward in to Boris’ speech, you can hear Saigon Popular Youtuber, Sargon of Akkad ejaculate a few times
From the beginning of this video it is clear that he is now officially BoJos biggest fan
Pmsl tbh

Dominic Long
Dominic Long

Global report

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Angel Mitchell
Angel Mitchell

Nice day today

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Evan Morales
Evan Morales

materialistic kayaking
Smdh
that lass on the beach
Phwoar

Benjamin Lopez
Benjamin Lopez

Not really, it's done something weird to my beer. I think it's aroused the remaining yeasts.

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Christopher Morgan
Christopher Morgan

that skin tone
black hair
Wogs out tbh

Gavin Watson
Gavin Watson

Maybe I should hook up by cousin with a Zig Forumslad

Carter Sullivan
Carter Sullivan

not steiner he would just hurt her

Logan Thomas
Logan Thomas

don't want her to get with someone that will never be a dad

Jason Sanchez
Jason Sanchez

No racemimxing board tbh

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Dylan Reyes
Dylan Reyes

Based Paul

Easton Wilson
Easton Wilson

That's not high enough to kill yourself, Spooky Rory tbh smh.

Asher Lee
Asher Lee

where’s 22st

Jace Smith
Jace Smith

anyone else miss 22st

Daniel Cook
Daniel Cook

lids, what did you do to him?11

Justin Taylor
Justin Taylor

22st

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Liam Hughes
Liam Hughes

22st

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Jackson Wood
Jackson Wood

Got any pictures of her lad, can see if she will be a suitable match for me lad

Luis Harris
Luis Harris

smh lad I was joking she needs a good norgelad

Alexander Wilson
Alexander Wilson

22st

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Evan Ramirez
Evan Ramirez

I can imagine what ‘she’ looks like

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Jose Cooper
Jose Cooper

(1)

Liam Brooks
Liam Brooks

DER BLONDE BULLDOZER

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Caleb Perry
Caleb Perry

that just makes him sound cool

Cameron Diaz
Cameron Diaz

4/5ths of my 4chan memi jewtube playlist I’ve been collecting since 2011 have been deleted
Literally destroying my childhood those CUNTS

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Brandon Hernandez
Brandon Hernandez

Stupid Gutless Turk kickball star got mugged in Golders Green today and ran as fast as his legs would carry him into a kebab shop for safety leaving his colleague to fight the muggers off
Lol at these Turks

Parker Martin
Parker Martin

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Aiden Sanders
Aiden Sanders

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Gabriel Foster
Gabriel Foster

TBH
B
H

Robert Watson
Robert Watson

I want to get back in the kitchen now.

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Carson Morales
Carson Morales

mmm solid alias work. muy pro 😂

Jack Brown
Jack Brown

jej
twitter.com/snb19692/status/1153691111476670464

Julian Lewis
Julian Lewis

the coward won’t pick up the ridiculous retard talisman to his left. it sings a song, “you’re not so brave after all”.

Ethan Walker
Ethan Walker

I long tobe in the kitchen when I'm outside it, but also I hate it.

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Jose Mitchell
Jose Mitchell

I NEVER THOUGHT I’D DIE ALONE
ANOTHER 6 MONTHS I BE UNKNOWN

I DROPPED MY BALLS
ON THE FLOOR
AND THEN MAISIE SLAMMED THE DOOR

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Nathaniel Green
Nathaniel Green

22st would have picked up the talisman and channeled the dark forces of the room into a single evil dark point, then banished it to hell. no coward he.

Jonathan Clark
Jonathan Clark

i never thought i’d quit listening to mih grunge, but actually it was all crap, threw away my cds, only listen to edm, jazz, and classical now.

Julian Scott
Julian Scott

btw, lids, the adl is tackling the freedom of soeech available in online (and probably forums of) gaming.

Logan Diaz
Logan Diaz

this is what a real mi6 agent’s posts look like:

read & lurn

Kevin Thomas
Kevin Thomas

mong tbf I still listen to them for the nostalgia.

Hunter Phillips
Hunter Phillips

remember when 22st pulled the stone from the lass in the river?

Christopher King
Christopher King

i can’t. i hope all those oil drillers die(d) of hiv.

Jeremiah Cook
Jeremiah Cook

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Eli Myers
Eli Myers

jizz
degenerate nigger jew music

Wyatt Edwards
Wyatt Edwards

i’m more authentically grunge. i didn’t like the 90’s it sucked. fuck the 90’s and its shit music. it sucked, the music said it sucked. the 2000’s came and sucked even more. then the 2010’s kept the shit getting shittier. all that crap can go die.

Colton Moore
Colton Moore

?????

Jayden Nelson
Jayden Nelson

why do people set fires in the summer?

Benjamin Perry
Benjamin Perry

Never experienced the 90s but I did watch all the bumfights

Ayden Hall
Ayden Hall

Cuz they’re cool.

Caleb Brown
Caleb Brown

they smell and I can't shut my windows

Dominic Morgan
Dominic Morgan

owned

Lucas Roberts
Lucas Roberts

tbh all the baste and redpilled youtube stuff is gone, they don't even have the curtesy to tell you what the titles were

Eli Carter
Eli Carter

Pisses me off to no end.

My favourite V4C memmies are all gone.

Camden Morales
Camden Morales

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Liam Perez
Liam Perez

all these Democraphobics

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Jace Thompson
Jace Thompson

Hope someone killed him

Aiden Rodriguez
Aiden Rodriguez

??? the point is he’s not a nigger.

Nolan Anderson
Nolan Anderson

3 jews
Ashton
Tugbellend
Mandeljew

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Luis Robinson
Luis Robinson

He’s probably a jew then

Oliver Rogers
Oliver Rogers

fucking bourgeoisie cunts

Brayden Brown
Brayden Brown

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Isaiah Jackson
Isaiah Jackson

trying to play a simple game
<VROOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOSH

reee fuck off summer

Nathaniel Thompson
Nathaniel Thompson

sauce

Adam Jenkins
Adam Jenkins

wake up
again

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Nicholas Parker
Nicholas Parker

[advice i would give nice people here]

Isaac Anderson
Isaac Anderson

Oh, and by that I mean I'm not dead yet.

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Parker Wright
Parker Wright

gay nigger wants to cave thot’s skull in

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Kayden Wright
Kayden Wright

lad…..
ketchup

Owen Barnes
Owen Barnes

tfw having a nice cold drink to soothe the pain

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Logan Smith
Logan Smith

Lol WTF
Who edited this?
Is it supposed to look non EU funded?
WWW.twitter.com/OFOCBrexit/status/1154298881422835712

Ryder Watson
Ryder Watson

do you like eating cereal… dry with your hands? No? Well vote remain then!
What?

Ian Butler
Ian Butler

a nigger is in trouble
SEND IN THE FLEET

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Isaac Rivera
Isaac Rivera

Was doing gardening up til 10pm lads

Juan Lewis
Juan Lewis

Leave the bbc to me

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Connor Roberts
Connor Roberts

twitter.com/KathRidout

The absolute state of modern Britain.

Aiden White
Aiden White

solid alibi

Hudson Jones
Hudson Jones

such an embarrassment

Mason Walker
Mason Walker

No QT today?

Ian James
Ian James

but why no dirt on the hands if you've been working in the garden all day?

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Cooper Thompson
Cooper Thompson

yank politics is at the level that the us military is being used to free soundcloud rappers keek

Alexander Thomas
Alexander Thomas

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Liam Turner
Liam Turner

alecc talking to the ballwaxer the other day

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Jose Anderson
Jose Anderson

Unbelievable ffs

Carter Peterson
Carter Peterson

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Parker Ross
Parker Ross

Now this is true inspiration

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Wyatt Martinez
Wyatt Martinez

For Britannia

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Hudson Perry
Hudson Perry

ahh Owen Jones' commie muslim pet is on BBC2 again. why??

Aaron Phillips
Aaron Phillips

try to do this exercise
it's actually really fucking tough
Holy shit he must be fit for 68, and a smart lad to boot. Truly an asset for nationalism in North America.

Adam Jackson
Adam Jackson

I, uh, had a wash.

Easton Cox
Easton Cox

hot rn

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