MASSACRES in Bohemia, Spain.
270 JEWS BURNED AT THE STAKE. In the 14th and 15th centuries the Inquisition was more intense because the Church and State joined forces. Just being Jewish guaranteed persecution
Inquisition in Spain - Jews and Christians burned at the stake.
EXPULSIONS from Warsaw, Sicily, Lithuania, Portugal.
ALL JEWS EXPELLED FROM SPAIN.
Murders in Lisbon - 4000, "conversos", men, women, and children thrown from windows to street mobs below, due to preaching by Dominicans against the Jews.
EXPELLED from Brandenburg, Germany.
Venice initiates the ghetto, the first in Christian Europe.
The Reformation. At the end of Martin Luther's life the German reformer vilified the Jews in violent pamphlets which could not fail to exert their influence. But because Calvinists were steeped in Old Testament theology, the Dutch people respected the Jews as "the Chosen" people; and were not anti-Semitic in their faith. The reformation was a time of turmoil as the Roman Church and feudalism lost their supremacy. There was a rising up of Nationhood and Luther was a German nationalist. The Talmud was seized and burned everywhere by Papal authority. Jews in Catholic countries and Polish Jews suffered greatly. Luther's anti-Semitic writings were later used in anti-Semitic literature.
Rome seized and burned the Talmud by order of the POPE.
12,000 copies of Talmud burned in Milan.
POPE PIUS V ordered all Jews out of the Papal states.
EXPULSIONS from Italy and Bavaria.
Ritual murder charge that sent three Jews to their deaths. Execution of the supposed guilty was done by QUARTERING. (In his book the "Birth of the Prison" Michel Foucault describes at length the quartering of a condemned man in 1757. It was done eventually by six horses instead of the four original ones and other means had to come in to play due to the failure even of six horses as the prisoners limbs were tied to ropes harnessed to the horses. Each horse pulled in a different direction. One horse fell to the ground unsuccessfully. Knives had to be used for severing…)
JEWS attacked and driven out of Frankfurt, Germany.
GHETTO established in Ferrara, Italy.
Leader of the Cossacks, in the Ukraine massacres 100,000 Jews and destroyed 300 communities.
Massacres of Jews in war against Sweden & Russia by Poland.
POPE PIUS VI issues edict against Jews.
20,000 Jews in Poland killed.
MASSACRE of Jews in Algeria.
BLOOD LIBEL in DAMASCUS.
BLOOD LIBEL in RUSSIA.
THE MORTARA CASE: Catholics abduct a 7 yr. old Jewish child. A Catholic servant baptized a Jewish child when the child was seriously ill and the church of Rome seized the child. Outcry had no effect on the POPE.
Word anti-Semitism comes into existence.
POGROMS BEGAN. The word is of Russian origin. It designates attack, accompanied by destruction, looting of property, murder, rape. There were three major outbreaks in Russia. The word designates more particularly the attacks carried out by the Christian population. Each pogrom surpassed the other in savagery.
KIEV, ODESSA; Here murder of whole families was a common occurrence. Partial data are available for 530 communities in which 887 major pogroms and 349 minor pogroms occurred. There were 60,000 dead and several times that many were wounded.
FIRST ANTI-JEWISH CONGRESS HELD. In Dresden, Germany.
ALFRED DREYFUS TRIAL in France. Details follow further on in this summary.
APPEARANCE of a new issue of the PROTOCOLS OF THE ELDERS OF ZION. In Russia.
This spectre of a worldwide Jewish conspiracy aiming at reducing the Gentiles to slavery or extermination loomed up in the medieval Christian imagination and grew out of legends about well poisonings and plague spreading. It was concocted in Paris by an unknown author working for the Russian secret police. It was an alleged conference of the leaders of World Jewry. It was translated into all the world languages. In 1963 a Spanish edition was published. During World War II, the Protocols of the elders of Zion became an implicit justification for the GENOCIDE of the Jews and Nazi propaganda relied on them until the last days of the Third Reich. Smaller pamphlets of it have been distributed in B.C. 1983 published in California… Required reading in most Arab countries, in schools, to this day.
Russian pogroms continue. Also in Morocco, Ukraine, 300 dead.
3000 Jews killed in Hungarian pogroms.