Do you agree with America's idea of Japan's history

I see it on wikipedia (written by random Americans). While Americans were never in Japan in ancient times, they insist that whatever history Japanese people say happened is all false and made up.

And here is how the history of Japan works according to Americans.
1. Japanese never developed a single thing, every single creation and idea in Japan is just an importation.
2. Shinto is just a bastardised copy of Chinese folklore.
3. The Japanese language itself is from old Korea.
4. Hiragana and Katakana weren't even made in Japan, they were made in China and Korea and Japanese people adopted them.
5. Every single statue you see in Japan isn't an original imagination, the statues form is a direct copy from China and even the craft methods used to make it are from China.
6. The Katana has it's origins in Korea.
7. Japan's emperor system is from China.
8. Japan's oldest flag that is like it's modern one (the sun flag from the year 701) was designed by China.
9. Bowing was introduced from China.
10. No traditional Japanese clothes are actually made by Japan, all just direct copies of Chinese clothes.
11. All Japanese architecture is foreign, not a single piece of architecture if Japanese.
12. Japanese names were also imported, not nativly Japanese.
13. Samurai and Ninja were Chinese warriors in origin.

So according to your average American, the Japanese people are quite interesting in that they are unlike all other humans on earth. In that the Japanese have never created a single thing and not even 1% of their culture has anything to do with themselves.

That's pretty interesting that east Asians invented stuff, then settled in Japan and suddenly lost their brains and never made a single thing ever again. (this is what Americans believe).

Americans also insist that all of the Japanese inventions from the 19th and 20th century should be given credit to Europe, because without certain fundamentals the Japanese wouldn't have invented it. Thus it isn't really a Japanese invention, but a European one.

Attached: istockphoto-469622407-612x612.jpg (612x407, 63K)

Also according to Americans, the lands of America were not discovered until Europeans laid eyes on them. Meaning that the native inhabitants that originally found the lands can not be said to have discovered them (because they aren't European).

This is why Americans insist that Columbus discovered America, before that time it was undiscovered (like many part of the bottom of the ocean).

Found your problem, OP. Now commit sudoku for being a faggot who gets upset over kikepedia being wrong.

Attached: OP in a nutshell.jpg (625x604, 122.53K)

Random jew feminist pc-faggot sjw "americans", you mean.
Not true.

That's another thing also, even though no outside cartoon looks like anime before Japan made anime.
Americans insist that Disney invented anime………………no joke.

This is all based on one Anime creator who made astroboy saying that some of his influence was from Disney. Thus American kids took that quote and in their minds that means that Disney invented anime itself.
Just forget the part where Japan was making cartoons before Disney even existed and none of Disney's cartoons even resemble anime.

Americans insist that Japanese people don't know their own history, from oral to then later when writing existed in Japan.
All oral accounts of history before writing are considered to be entirely fantasy by Americans, and the written history when writing was a thing in Japan are also said to be pure fantasy by Japan.

Americans insist that they know the real history of Japan, as if they lived in Japan through it. How would the lowly Japanese know their own history? What conceited fools.

Fuck off, weeb.

Well according to America it isn't possible to be a weeb anyway. Since Japan has no culture of their own of anything, thus how is a weeb possible?

Americans do not such thing. Americans typically don't care about nor do they think about the Japs or their history.

Americans call Japanese history purely fantasy.
Even if it's just a story of some early emperor or prince that killed someone etc.

It's all deemed to be fake history and fantasy by Americans.
I am unsure how Americans are so confident of this, they didn't live in Japan through it's history. Pretty sure that was the Japanese, pretty sure they would know more about their own history than Americans (who didn't even exist until the 18th century).

Attached: opsroad.jpg (680x452, 60.48K)

What the fuck? No we don't.
Why the fuck are you on here, Jap? Go to 2ch.

Your dumb shit is obvious for what it is, nigger. The only (((americans))) that are commenting on kikepedia are the same ones who claim all anime makes you gay.

So you are a weeb?

Yes Americans do, they insist Japan's language is from old Korea. Same with the Samurai sword.
They claim that the reason Korea doesn't have the same language anymore is because they changed it (since they can invent new things) and the Japanese kept the old language as they are incapable of making anything themselves.

This is now a 'OP is a faggot' thread.

Attached: op (5).jpg (500x375, 37.03K)

Sauce nigger? Because no, Americans don't claim shit.

This is American\Japan D&C

The Jew fears the Viking.
The Jew fears the Samurai .

Attached: OP (3).jpg (600x1323, 102.02K)


Attached: op book of faggotry.jpg (630x943, 337.14K)

nice one

Attached: op (4).jpg (497x427, 48.52K)

Yes they do, look on any wiki page (written by random Americans).

According to Americans, even the native Japanese name for their country (nippon/nihon) was coined by China.

Japanese are only a higher-tier race due to their incredibly powerful racial consciousness. In other regards, they recognize the good of borrowing ideas and technology and adopting it to their own purposes. Hitler once said in Table Talk that the Jews are unable to subvert the Japanese due to this instinct of racial preservation, causing the Jew to attack from without. There is nothing wrong with borrowing ideas and technology. We as a race are just lucky that we invent most of this stuff and have the capacity to create these world-revolutionizing ideas. The greatest of white men would far outshine the greatest Japanese man

Your first mistake is using wikipedia in the first place nigger. But your D&C is fucking obvious as you don't know shit in regards to what actual americans think. Next you're going to be telling me it's fact in the eyes of americans that niggers were in Japan during the muromachi period while your only citation will be that one book written by a kike from israhell who can't even point to any legitimate sources.

So again, nigger, source, or get the fuck out.

Attached: smugsmile2.png (770x720, 458.58K)

lol, we have one of these guys right here.

Americans do insist that all anime characters are either meant to be European Americans (if they aren't tanned), or African Americans (if they are tanned).
Americans insist they aren't Japanese.
Even 3d characters modelled after real Japanese people are called Americans by your average American person.

You are ignorant and racially insecure.
Here is a little education for you, Japan has invented more per capita from 1853-2019 than any other people.

1. The electric television was invented by Kenjiro Takayanagi in 1926, even though in the past America refused to cover this and insisted that Farnsworth invented the electric television in 1927. Look it up, sorry if this triggers you. It's accepted today by the west that he invented it (even American scholars accept that he invented it and not Farnsworth).

2. Norikazu Sawazaki in 1953 invented the first video tape recorder.

3. Flash memory (what you use in your phones and cameras) was invented by Fujio Masuoka in 1980.

4. 3D printing was invented by Hideo Kodama in 1981.

5. Those facebook Hydrographics videos you see, Hydrographics was invented by Japan in 1982 by Motoyasu Nakanishi.

6. The Laptop was invented by Yukio Yokozawa in 1980.

7. Jun-Ichi Nishizawa invented the PIN diode in 1950, the LASER in 1957 and graden index optical fibre in 1964, Solid state maser in 1955 and the statis induction transistor in 150. These are groundbreaking inventions, sorry. Basically none of the modern digital technology you use today would be possible without these.

8. The microprocessor (single chip central processing unit) wasn't built by Japan, but the idea at least for it was from Tadashi Sasaki who pitched his idea to American tech firms Busicom and Intel (who then made it).

9. And here is the big boy.
Akira Nakashima invented switching circuit theory, this is a theory behind the logic of switching circuits (which is behind all digital technology).
Nakashima would then developed digital computer design and digital computer theory, quite literally the foundations of all digital technology that you enjoy today (like the computer or phone you are using to talk ignorant sh*t about the Japanese).

I already know you are unwilling to accept any of this, because of your racial insecurity. You American white guys with your insecurity are no better than Afrocentrists. You are the white versions of Afrocentrists in fact, the same level of education and insecurity.

Americans also make shit talking articles every day about Japan.
Such as.

1. OMG, Japanese are going to go extinct because of a low birth rate. They need immigrants fast! If they don't, they are racist!

2. Japanese don't have sex, what losers. lol

3. Japan has a higher percentage of women killed than the USA (let's leave out that that higher percentage is of an overall tiny number of murders, thus women are overall far far safer in Japan than the west in fact).

4. Japan is backwards and needs to accept feminism and the SJW lifestyle etc.

^ Common articles about Japan every day, never ever a nice thing to say about Japan from the Anglo media or Anglo citizens.

'Americans'. Don't bin me in with those faggots.


Kind of a silly over reaction OP. Most normalshits are at least aware of anime and most all video games for two decades were made in Japan. Also that Samurais and Ninjas were badass and from Japan (maybe China if they're retarded, as just thinking of all Asian shit generically as 'Chinese' is the most common reaction of most). That's it. They don't think about or really care about Japanese history and shit like that. And they definitely AREN'T the type of Bolshevik kikes who edit or even care about what's on Wikipedia. Anyone TRULY interested in history, Japanese or otherwise, wouldn't use Kikepedia for anything more than a jumping off point for any given subject and would seek out and find the truth anyway.

Attached: fe02731c6716d49d6e1fd8031f5a47cfc64d0266243049747afd7a07c8c41bef.gif (500x270, 999.91K)

Americans also believe that Saudi Arabia are good guys and that Iran and Saudi Arabia are bad guys. And that everything China has in their country was stolen via hacking American servers.

Americans also believe that Israel is the only democracy in the middle east and a country of peace. And they think Japan is a bad country of sexist, racist and immoral freaks.

Typo, I meant they think that Iran and Venezuela are the bad guys. Not Saudi Arabia, Americans think Saudi Arabia is a good country and good people.

Americans mustn't be aware that they literally crucify people in Saudi Arabia and stone women to death for getting raped.

Americans also proclaim that Jewish people are god's chosen people and that our duty is to protect them.

Personally as a non American I find that whole idea BS, to call another people god's chosen people (just because they told you so).

Yes, thats my point. Normalshit Americans are brainwashed. This is nothing new. And Wikipedia is cucked beyond belief.. also nothing new. No point getting upset about it

Normal Americans also say that Edison invented electricity and that Ford invented the automobile.

And if you tell them that a German guy called Benz invented the automobile they attack you verbally and call you a conspiracy theorist.
And when you tell them that electricity was discovered and not invented, and it was Tesla who pioneered the AC system. They also go crazy at you.

Americans are interesting people.

Most burgers are indeed brainlets, that is true. That's what happens when a kiked educational system has the chance to run amok for 50, 60 years.

Most of the burgers also tell me that Japan is racist and should be accepting millions of immigrants. It's nearly like the burgers are offended by Japan's existence and want them to be bred out or something.

Sounds like a whole lot of jewish projection, which is fitting considering that japan is the only country in the world that kikes dropped a nuke on.

Probably because Japan sucks.

To be fair, I don't think kikes dropped it. I think yank whites did, even Eisenhower who is a Jew said it was totally necessary.
Einstein who also is Jewish said that the Japanese are impressive people like no other people.

When at the same times whites in America were making anti-Japanese propaganda drawing them as monkeys and octopuses.

Typo again, I meant Eisenhower said it was totally unnecessary.

Nips deserved the nuke and if you claim it was a crime you’re (if American) an anti-American traitor who would rather preserve racial aliens than white soldiers

Just like us, isn't it?

Found the faggot.

This is not your personal blog. Japanese women prefer white cock. Okay, thank you.

Because they totally were invading white peoples country's…………….not.
They invaded areas of Asia that were previously taken over by white people (don't even try to claim that colony land is rightfully yours).

As far as Hawaii, the Japanese bombed a military base there. And Hawaii was a kingdom that was annexed by the USA, the USA didn't deserve to be there to start with (it's stolen land).

What do you mean just like us?

Who is us? You mean like a western country?
Well western countries invented the SJW shit and feminism and the dumb interracial fetishes.

That's odd, why do only 0.25% of Japanese women marry a foreigner. And why aren't they all putting themselves on bride sites for western men?

Oh that's why, they don't care about your pink smelly cock honey. The only person who worships your cock is yourself you homo.

European racists (Anglo's) lost WW2 actually.
Fast forward from that point, look at the UK and the USA.

The USA is a mixed out interracial country with a fucked up SJW culture of overweight people.
The UK is also taking in immigrants and is crying about their economic situation and blaming the EU.

Japan is still Japanese, modern and have the longest lift spans and higher IQ's.
China is a rising giant about to rule the world, Germany is doing just fine.
Russia is growing and doing better, with China as their friend they will do even better in the future.

Japan just did a huge LNG deal with Russia and are converting power plants to LNG, this will come in via pipeline.
Japan is on China and Russia's side.

The USA never took over all of Korea, and the thing is going to rejoin into one country within the decade.
Apple took a 400 billion dollar loss, American is desperately trying to cling on by attempting to take over Venezuela and use their oil to prolong the US's power……..but it's blunder after blunder.
The USA is trying to lock away Julian Assange for just showing the world American war crimes (only in the USA is it a crime to expose crimes).

Proudly own Huawei, never buy American products.
Americans are low IQ braindead racist, the country is built on mass genocide of native Americans.

Americans are so sad about their own situation that they have to make up nonsense about Japan and claim the country is doomed, misery loves company. How mentally weak, and it's all white Americans (not Jewish people).

Jewish people are Japan's ally, white people are Japan's enemy.
Notice how Japan kicked European imperialists in the ass and helped end the British and French empire? They don't exist anymore.

White people lost! Sorry, the only last white empire is the USA. And it's about to be overtaken or bought out, the writing is on the wall.
As Einstein said, racism is a disease of white people. And he was so correct, Jews and Asians unite and killed off filthy European empires and racists.

Attached: jfh.jpg (500x522, 36.43K)

Racist American white bois are facing karma, every year in the USA millions of white women fuck black men, an around 900,000 half black babies are born.
While kids sit on Zig Forums crying and jacking off over porn fantasy. It's hilarious.

Attached: de79bbe6479fe31010c52913dbab5f84.jpg (320x320, 22.42K)

Wikipedia is a one stop shop for all your indoctrination needs. Every intelligence agency wants a piece of the pie.

Not really, wikipedia is just a website where American nobodies who don't quite know what they are talking about get to edit and add their own delusions on a site that is meant to be akin to an encyclopedia.

Shit I have seen so many wiki pages that got hit by trolls also, on one I mentioned in 4 comments on youtube the UFC event attendance stats. One guy literally went there and just changed all of the stats to false stats, it wasn't until like 3 weeks until some other person at wiki changed it back.

There are still hordes of things that aren't blatantly as noticeable as that remaining on thousands of wiki pages. When you make your website open for anyone to edit, it ends up with the pages representing the lowest and most common denominator.
Hordes of wiki pages are filled with many sentences without any source to back it up (just the opinion of the person who wrote it). And then I see some cases of the most ridiculous sources given (like the daily mail or something).

The only pages are totally correct are ones where it's just a cut and dry subject, like a chemistry page or mathematics page (those pages usually aren't created by retards).

The least educated pages have to be pages relating to history, it's basically just full with a collaboration of random American kid's opinions and perspective on things.

anich! anich!

Japanese are honorary.

The Average American couldn't find Japan on a map, OP. These propaganda pieces were written by jews and their chinkbug servants.

Honorary what?

That wouldn't be an honour for them to be honorary Europeans, especially when Japanese people (who are east Asian) are more evolved with larger brains and more civility and lower crime rates.

You can't call them honorary in a feeble attempt to take credit for them, that's about as stupid as if some Afrocentrists said that middle eastern people are honorary blacks in an attempt to take credit for all of their innovation in their old civilisations. When being an honorary black would be a downgrade to the middle eastern person, not an upgrade.

Also it should be called honorary pink, pic related. lol

Attached: failpinkboi.jpg (500x715, 187.3K)

Not good to scapegoat, it isn't Jews. It's dumb European American nobodies, they are on quora also. They are everywhere, they are totally ignorant.

Blaming Jews, just because you wish white people weren't retards isn't going to work.

I don't believe that. Thought there is some boomer beliefs in there that I've seen.

And where do you think all this shit came from? The Jews started these false ideas. A lot of them are hold over ww2 propaganda.

Boomers pass down their beliefs to their kids a lot, not uncommon. Happens in all countries, if the country created propaganda about another country, it's usually believed by most people and then passed down from parents to kids. And the USA did create anti-Japanese propaganda, a lot of it.

The whole reason the red scare BS still works is for the same reason above. Parents and regular people affected by propaganda in turn become propagandists to others.

Jews didn't create the propaganda honey, it was whites. White Germans also created the dumb original racism of Europe that spread, where native Americans were seen as red and Asians as yellow and Europeans for a while (especially in western Europe) brainwashed themselves that their pink skin was actually white.
The same system called Africans not human, but half ape.

I suppose you are going to say also the legacy of this BS in the USA (Jim Crow BS) is also not pushed by redneck racists, and it's Jews that did that?

Again, trying to scapegoat European ethnic peoples shitty behaviour by claiming it was secretly Jews never worked out well.

And now it's where you tell us that the Jesus of Lubeck ship, captained by a Christian and had a priest aboard was totally Jews………….come on honey. You only hurt your race by trying to deny history this much.
Even Europeans admit this shit, you aren't going to get anywhere with your dumb "it was da Jews, we are innocent I tell you".

Fuck off.

This pretty much.

Fuck off kike.

By pushing incorrect ideas just to hate anyone outside of your group is wrong, sorry.

Thus racism is wrong, a whole lot of things the liberals call racism are not actually racism though. But actual racism is wrong, sorry.

try to edit a page you faggot, you get shot down by the kike mods immediately
lurk more

Attached: 1d5b32e163f5b33a66ea468c31f7a04cf833aba2500cbd7652baea5bad77308e.jpg (397x520, 25.27K)

I have edited pages already and they remain up.
If you get shot down it's probably because you are illiterate.

OP has 33 posts and is clearly only here on official kike business. Sage. Ignore.

This, fuck this kike thread.

Les we forget, 6 MILLION.
That is bigger than the entire population of Ireland.
So sad, showing just how evil European imperialists were (and still could be if they run wild again).

Attached: we-remember-the-6-million-jews-who-died-in-the-13067292.png (500x874, 205.74K)

Europeans have a psychopath genes, Einstein is right that racial is a disease they are afflicted with.

List of genocides by Europeans.

1. King Leopold II of Belgium killed 9 millions Africans in his occupation of the Congo.

2. European settlers killed around 7 million native Americans.

3. Germans killed 6 million Jews in WW2.

4. American bombers bombed 66 cities of Japan throughout WW2, with civilian areas deliberately bombed. Around 5 cities being totally destroyed, across the country around 3 million dead civilians.

5. When you combine the other various genocides in Africa, south east Asia, India, the middle east, Korea, NZ, Siberia and south America. You get around another 35 million more people killed, add that onto the others listed and you are at 60 million already.

Americans don't even know their own history (at least the stupid ones). Each time you tell them something, it's news to them.

Like how in America's recent history native American women were forcibly sterilised. Up to 70,000 of them went through this, all part of America's eugenics nonsense.
These things aren't mentioned anymore, Americans don't want to think about them and just want to forget. Thus most younger generations have no idea about how shit their country was, and instead just chant BS like "make America great again" with some imagination in their head of how they think America must have been.

Someone get some bugspray.

America complains about China and claims China stole tech off them that America doesn't even have yet. fail

America is a dumb country of alt-right hicks who acts just as bad as Afrocentrist. That's why that dumbass Trump was elected.

nuff said

Attached: fp.jpg (1320x900, 249.87K)

Here's my impression of Japanese culture.

You should be sterilized for coming here with this dog shit.

Europeans only knew how to stack rocks on top of each other until northern African and middle eastern empires introduced concrete to Europe, starting with giving it to the Greeks. The Greeks then used it and also copied the Persian and middle eastern pillar architecture.
The oldest concrete is around 3320 years ago in the middle east, The Egyptians also had it not too long after (Europeans didn't have it until later and it was introduced to Europe, just as glass and many other things were).

Too late, I have kids. Sterilising me now won't change that, don't project and assume other people don't have kids (just because you are an incel with no partner or kids).

The oldest concrete found ever is from 7000BC in Israel in an ancient hut (or where one stood).
Europeans didn't even have soap until the moors gave it to them.

Attached: th.jpg (474x333, 39.03K)


I don't trust much of official history, be it Japan or other countries. Sometimes claims of historical facts are deliberate fabrications for political purposes, like the Holohoax, other times they might simple be things that "sound plausible" according to experts, but they don't really know the truth.

I don't get though what's the point of blaming Americans for all of this. I'm sure historians from other countries have made shit up too.
I'm not American.

^ We have a classic American here. lol

Nope, they don't. America is #1 in making shit up, it's why American had thousands of it's patents thrown out in the international patent office and Edison is seen for what he is by other countries (a patent troll).
America still insists that Ford invented the car and that Edison invented electricity and the light bulb.

America is a joke country, it also insists it owned the space race. Yet the achievement lists of the USA vs Russia are incomparable (and not in a good way for the USA).

The USA literally used Russian inventions and innovation to waste tax payers money to have a man walk on the moon, then declare that they won in space innovation, a total fucking joke country.

Russian space achievements.
1. First ICBM capable of launching things into space.
2. First space station.
3. First satellite.
4. First robotic rovers.
5. First space shuttle.
6. First space probe.
7. First docking in space.
8. First samples from other planets.
9. First photos of the other side of the moon.
10. First data telemetry.
11. Even the first woman, animal and black person in space.

Russians totally owned the entire game, sorry dumb yank. You hate history and facts.

shiggy diggy

Attached: HideSlideThreadsSageSlideThreadsIgnoreSlidePostsDon'tReplyToSlidePosters.png (1305x892, 163.39K)

You make even average Americans look smart, that's not good.

You realize Zig Forums is generally pro-Japan right?

Americans claim America invented the hamburger and hot dog also.
Both things brought over to America by German immigrants…………..sigh.

Americans are so historically stupid that they even think that Jiu Jitsu is historically Brazilian……….sigh.

Why are us other white people punished so much with having Americans in our cultural sphere? They are like special Ed people nearly.

I don't know how trustworthy the Japanese version of Wikipedia is but our language version is so untrustworthy that anyone who cites it can safely be written off as a dumbass. It's also constantly being edited by multiple countries over what is and is not politically correct when it's not some idiot pulling shit out of his ass.

Attached: 1515561377.png (641x629, 114.81K)

No it isn't, Zig Forums on here and 4chan is anti-Japanese.
They get offended anytime Japan makes something and acts like insecure Eurocentrists trying to use mental gymnastics to give Europeans credit somehow.

They go around saying dumb shit calling them "insectoids" and claiming they are 5 foot tall on average and have 1 inch "rice dicks", and also claim that anime is meant to be Americans…..

The list goes on, not a single part of Zig Forums is pro Japanese. The only thing they don't bash on Japan about is Japan not caring too much for immigration.

What floats to the top in this world is often complete scum. It isn’t that hard to build a society for mass prosperity. It’s only necessary to build a cultivation grid. Cities grow like fungal constructs. The secret to arcology design is city-stacking.

Japan? Why should I care about Japan’s history in the specific?

Classic nigger.

Classic kike.

What? All references to bugmen are default Hans Chinese and Koreans automatically, unless they specifically refer to Japanese in their text you're just assuming they're talking about you.

That's because you're a kike towing the kike line.

Attached: 1504134844103.jpg (640x640, 72.12K)

Not only are they called insectoid by Zig Forums users.
But Zig Forums users also insist that the ancient Jomon natives were a long lost clan of magical European people.

Yet quite literally every genetic study done on the Jomon shows them to be Asian, but just an older group. With their closest relation to eastern Siberian groups.

But Zig Forums people don't give a shit about science and facts, they claim anything that is inconvenient to them are "kike lies" and they just choose to believe what they want to believe, based on their emotions.

Additionally Zig Forums also still believes that blacks are half ape. Zig Forums is largely occupied by school dropouts or home-schooled people who based their ideas pretty much on some Jim Crow type stuff they read online on a forum or image board.

this thread is shit but going to be bumped to post limit because of weebs and anime hating boomers

It isn't boomers exactly (well some of them may be). But it's a common part of American society to hate on Japan, it has been this way since around the 1920's in fact.

It is unpopular to say good things about Japan in American society, even still to this day.

Zig Forums is the type of place to be even worse than the average American. The type of place where "ancient aliens" and Alex Jones and David Icke are considering "sensible" and "based". lol

Given that many Japanese aren't that proficient in english since they have enough trouble learning their moonrunes, let alone be able to differentiate between L and R, there should be no question as to why the english wikipedia articles overwhelmingly contain an American/ English speaking bias.
From my experience, Japanese tend to be more dilligent than Westerners and more reserved than Chinese and Koreans, whereas they have features that make them similar, be it the subtlety in their actions, or their ways of intrigue.
Japanese tend to innovate, while Europeans tend to create.
Every nation should have a right to their own history.
Take your sources from where you find them to be most true.

Anyways, I disagree with America's idea of Japan's history, based on what you posted in the header.

No Zig Forums is pro japan and you are a D&C shill. Japan is the only place in asia that Zig Forums supports. Take your faggoty D&C out of here. Based Japs I am sorry for this retard.